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Performance modelling for parallel PDE solvers on NUMA-systems
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för teknisk databehandling. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Numerisk analys. (Software Aspects of High-Performance Computing)
2006 (Engelska)Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

A detailed model of the memory performance of a PDE solver running on a NUMA-system is set up. Due to the complexity of modern computers, such a detailed model inevitably is very complicated. Therefore, approximations are introduced that simplify the model and allows NUMA-systems and PDE solvers to be described conveniently.

Using the simplified model, it is shown that PDE solvers using ordered local methods can be made very unsensitive to high NUMA-ratios, allowing them to scale well on virtually any NUMA-system.

PDE solvers using unordered local methods, semiglobal methods or global methods are more sensitive to high NUMA-ratios and require special techniques in order to scale well beyond a single locality group.

Nevertheless, the potential performance gain of improving the data distribution on a NUMA-system can be considerable for all kinds of PDE solvers studied.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2006.
Serie
Technical report / Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, ISSN 1404-3203 ; 2006-041
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi) Beräkningsmatematik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-81930OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-81930DiVA, id: diva2:109845
Tillgänglig från: 2008-02-19 Skapad: 2008-02-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-05-31Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Multithreaded PDE Solvers on Non-Uniform Memory Architectures
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Multithreaded PDE Solvers on Non-Uniform Memory Architectures
2006 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

A trend in parallel computer architecture is that systems with a large shared memory are becoming more and more popular. A shared memory system can be either a uniform memory architecture (UMA) or a cache coherent non-uniform memory architecture (cc-NUMA).

In the present thesis, the performance of parallel PDE solvers on cc-NUMA computers is studied. In particular, we consider the shared namespace programming model, represented by OpenMP. Since the main memory is physically, or geographically distributed over several multi-processor nodes, the latency for local memory accesses is smaller than for remote accesses. Therefore, the geographical locality of the data becomes important.

The focus of the present thesis is to study multithreaded PDE solvers on cc-NUMA systems, in particular their memory access pattern with respect to geographical locality. The questions posed are: (1) How large is the influence on performance of the non-uniformity of the memory system? (2) How should a program be written in order to reduce this influence? (3) Is it possible to introduce optimizations in the computer system for this purpose?

The main conclusion is that geographical locality is important for performance on cc-NUMA systems. This is shown experimentally for a broad range of PDE solvers as well as theoretically using a model involving characteristics of computer systems and applications.

Geographical locality can be achieved through migration directives that are inserted by the programmer or — possibly in the future — automatically by the compiler. On some systems, it can also be accomplished by means of transparent, hardware initiated migration and replication. However, a necessary condition that must be fulfilled if migration is to be effective is that the memory access pattern must not be "speckled", i.e. as few threads as possible shall make accesses to each memory page.

We also conclude that OpenMP is competitive with MPI on cc-NUMA systems if care is taken to get a favourable data distribution.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006. s. 33
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 224
Nyckelord
PDE solver, high-performance, NUMA, UMA, OpenMP, MPI, data migration, data replication, thread scheduling, data affinity
Nationell ämneskategori
Programvaruteknik
Forskningsämne
Beräkningsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-7149 (URN)91-554-6656-7 (ISBN)
Disputation
2006-10-20, Room 2446, Polacksbacken, Lägerhyddsvägen 2D, Uppsala, 10:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2006-09-28 Skapad: 2006-09-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-03-11Bibliografiskt granskad

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