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Climate-driven build-up of temporal isolation within a recently formed avian hybrid zone.
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-0706-458x
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-3058-0072
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 72, nr 2, s. 363-374Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Divergence in the onset of reproduction can act as an important source of reproductive isolation (i.e., allochronic isolation) between co-occurring young species, but evidence for the evolutionary processes leading to such divergence is often indirect. While advancing spring seasons strongly affect the onset of reproduction in many taxa, it remains largely unexplored whether contemporary spring advancement directly affects allochronic isolation between young species. We examined how increasing spring temperatures affected onset of reproduction and thereby hybridization between pied and collared flycatchers (Ficedula spp.) across habitat types in a young secondary contact zone. We found that both species have advanced their timing of breeding in 14 years. However, selection on pied flycatchers to breed earlier was weaker, resulting in a slower response to advancing springs compared to collared flycatchers and thereby build-up of allochronic isolation between the species. We argue that a preadaptation to a broader niche use (diet) of pied flycatchers explains the slower response to raising spring temperature, but that reduced risk to hybridize may contribute to further divergence in the onset of breeding in the future. Our results show that minor differences in the response to environmental change of co-occurring closely related species can quickly cause allochronic isolation.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2018. Vol. 72, nr 2, s. 363-374
Nyckelord [en]
Competitive exclusion, ecological speciation, prezygotic isolation, reinforcement, speciation, temporal segregation
Nationell ämneskategori
Evolutionsbiologi Ekologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341102DOI: 10.1111/evo.13404ISI: 000424131100011PubMedID: 29214649OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-341102DiVA, id: diva2:1180783
Forskningsfinansiär
VetenskapsrådetFinlands AkademiTillgänglig från: 2018-02-06 Skapad: 2018-02-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-10Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Avian Malaria and Interspecific Interactions in Ficedula Flycatchers
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Avian Malaria and Interspecific Interactions in Ficedula Flycatchers
2019 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Parasitism is a core theme in ecological and evolutionary studies. Despite this, there are still gaps in our knowledge regarding host-parasite interactions in nature. Furthermore, in an era of human-induced, global climatic and environmental change revealing the roles that parasites play in host life-histories, interspecific interactions and host distributions is of the utmost importance. In this thesis, I explore avian malaria parasites (haemosporidians) in two species of passerine birds: the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis and the pied flycatcher F. hypoleuca. In Paper I, I show that an increase in spring temperature has led to rapid divergence in breeding times for the two flycatcher species, with collared flycatchers breeding significantly earlier than pied flycatchers. This has facilitated regional coexistence through the build up of temporal isolation. In Paper II, I explore how malaria assemblages across the breeding ranges of collared and pied flycatchers vary. I find that pied flycatcher populations have significantly higher infection prevalence than collared flycatchers, but collared flycatchers have a higher diversity of parasites. Additionally, I find that recently colonised flycatchers have kept their original parasite assemblages while gaining further parasites from native pied flycatchers. In Paper III, I explore age-related patterns of malaria infections in collared flycatchers. I find that female collared flycatchers have higher overall infection rates than males and that infected female collared flycatchers have significantly higher mortality rates than uninfected females while males pay no survival cost. Despite this, female collared flycatchers do not pay a fitness cost, despite their shorter lifespans. In Paper IV, I explore nest defence behaviours of infected and uninfected collared flycatchers. I find that malaria infection significantly interacts with age and that young, infected collared flycatchers have a lower intensity of defence behaviours than uninfected individuals, while the opposite pattern is present in older collared flycatchers, with infected birds having higher defence behaviours. Therefore, I argue that Papers III and VI suggest patterns of terminal investment are present in collared flycatchers. Finally, in Paper V, I investigate parasite transmission in pied and collared flycatchers. I find that infected individuals of both species produce higher quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than uninfected individuals. Additionally, there is a significant increase in VOCs produced when the number of malaria gametocytes is higher. This suggests that malaria parasites are able to manipulate their hosts into producing insect-vector attracting compounds and that this is further increased at peak infectivity. These findings help to fill in some of the gaps in the literature regarding host-parasite relationships and the role of environmental change on hosts.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. s. 44
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1781
Nyckelord
ficedula, flycatcher, avian malaria
Nationell ämneskategori
Ekologi
Forskningsämne
Biologi med inriktning mot zooekologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377921 (URN)978-91-513-0589-9 (ISBN)
Disputation
2019-04-26, Zootissalen, EBC, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-02 Skapad: 2019-03-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-07

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McFarlane, S. ErynJones, WilliamWheatcroft, DavidÅlund, MurielleQvarnström, Anna

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