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Talking Threats: The Social Construction of National Security in Russia and the United States
Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
2010 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Why are some issues seen as threats? This dissertation attempts to explain the dynamics of threat construction by national decision-makers. The theoretical ambition is twofold: first, the dissertation aims at improving the research on threat construction by suggesting a broad approach that analyzes this process in a structured manner. Second, the dissertation also contributes to the more mainstream International Relations security research agenda, which often under-problematizes this issue. The point of departure is that the link between a condition (e.g. structure) and threat framing (e.g. agency) is not to be taken for granted, and that threat construction is subjective and varies among actors.  This assertion is supported by the findings of the dissertation’s component parts. Essay I finds that US security doctrines such as the Truman and Bush doctrines are not routine responses to external threats but rather the natural continuation of a political and societal discourse in which certain norms and identities interact. Essay II finds that a condition that could lay the foundation for a threat construction does not necessarily evoke such a reaction, such as the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Russia. Essay III demonstrates the opposite situation; that a securitization can take place although the contextual conditions do not necessarily point toward such a move, such as US President Clinton’s declaration that AIDS is a threat to the national security of the United States. Essay IV proposes a framework that incorporates explanatory factors from the international, the domestic, and the individual levels of analysis. Such a framework allows for a more refined analysis which better captures the contingent relationships between factors. Taken together, the findings of this dissertation indicate that the correlations between conditions and threat constructions are intricate, and that the explanation of a securitization lies in the interaction of certain social and cognitive processes.

 

 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University , 2010. , s. 47
Serie
Report / Department of Peace and Conflict Research, ISSN 0566-8808 ; 91
Nyckelord [en]
threat images, security, securitization, norms, ideas, HIV/AIDS
Nationell ämneskategori
Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap Statsvetenskap (exklusive studier av offentlig förvaltning och globaliseringsstudier)
Forskningsämne
Freds- och konfliktforskning
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-130585ISBN: 978-91-506-2158-7 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-130585DiVA, id: diva2:356581
Disputation
2010-11-27, Universitetshuset, Sal IX, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 10:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-04 Skapad: 2010-09-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-01-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. The Discursive Origins of a Doctrine: Norms, Identity, and Securitization under Harry S. Truman and George W. Bush
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Discursive Origins of a Doctrine: Norms, Identity, and Securitization under Harry S. Truman and George W. Bush
2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Foreign Policy Analysis, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 233-254Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Nyckelord
Foreign Policy, Security Studies, Discourse Analysis
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan samhällsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-15107 (URN)10.1111/j.1743-8594.2007.00049.x (DOI)000207982800003 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2008-02-05 Skapad: 2008-02-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-01-28Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Exploring the Construction of Threats: The securitization of HIV/AIDS in Russia
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Exploring the Construction of Threats: The securitization of HIV/AIDS in Russia
2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: Security Dialogue, ISSN 0967-0106, E-ISSN 1460-3640, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 7-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In April 2006, Russian President Vladimir Putin publicly declared HIV/ AIDS to be a threat to Russia's national security and proposed a guiding strategy to handle it. This move stood in sharp contrast to previous policies of the Russian government. Despite the fact that Russia has experienced one of the fastest growing rates of HIV/AIDS in the world since the turn of the millennium, the government's involvement had previously been minimal, not recognizing AIDS as a national security threat. The question then arises: when is a threat really threatening? This article contributes to the development of theories on threat-framing and security decisionmaking by suggesting an analytical framework that incorporates explanatory variables from different levels of analysis. The adoption of a broad theoretical position facilitates a comprehensive understanding of time and space variations in the securitization of issues. The article demonstrates that norms and identity constructions at the international and domestic levels, combined with their internalization by individual decisionmakers, can together explain Putin's move, and that these factors are of different importance at difference stages of the threat-construction process.

Nyckelord
HIV/AIDS, Identity, Internalization, Norms, Russia
Nationell ämneskategori
Statsvetenskap (exklusive studier av offentlig förvaltning och globaliseringsstudier)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-98682 (URN)10.1177/0967010607086821 (DOI)000253378000001 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2009-03-02 Skapad: 2009-03-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-01-28Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Health Issues and Securitization: The Construction of HIV/AIDS as a US National Security Threat
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Health Issues and Securitization: The Construction of HIV/AIDS as a US National Security Threat
2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Securitization Theory: How Security Problems Emerge and Dissolve / [ed] Balzacq, Thierry, London: Routledge , 2010, 1, s. 150-169Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
London: Routledge, 2010 Upplaga: 1
Serie
PRIO New Security Studies
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-130571 (URN)13:978-0-415-55628-6 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2010-09-09 Skapad: 2010-09-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-01-28Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Ideas, Identities and Internalization: Explaining securitizing moves
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Ideas, Identities and Internalization: Explaining securitizing moves
2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 143-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Why do some events take precedence over others in terms of being viewed as security issues? This article argues that in order to answer this question it is necessary to move beyond the assumption that threat images are self-evident. Rather, a distinction should be made between the contextual conditions that may lay the foundation for a threat image and the subjective problem formulation by actors. In addition, in order to analyze how, why, and when an actor constructs a threat image and initiates a so-called securitization process, a broad conceptual and analytical framework should be employed. This article suggests a framework that incorporates ideas and identity at the international and domestic levels, and the internalization processes of the central decision-making unit performing the securitization. The article argues that while the diffusion of ideas by entrepreneurs forms an important basis for the threat constructions of national decision-makers, it is necessary to take the role of national and domestic identities into account in order to explain why some idea diffusion processes succeed while other do not. Identity serves as a catalyst or gate-keeper of idea diffusion. The internalization of the decision-making unit, finally, is a central mechanism that highlights the process between the explanatory factors and the outcome (securitization). By including these three concepts into the analysis, this article takes a holistic approach that can be employed to analyze different kinds of actor-based and non-actor-based threat images.

Nyckelord
constructivism, ideas, identities, internalization, securitization, threat perception
Nationell ämneskategori
Samhällsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-130578 (URN)10.1177/0010836712445023 (DOI)000316633200007 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2010-09-09 Skapad: 2010-09-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad

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