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Symptoms of ADHD and depression in a large adolescent population: Co-occurring symptoms and associations to experiences of sexual abuse
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 65, nr 5, s. 315-322Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Symptoms of either attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or depression constitute the most common reasons for contact with child and adolescent psychiatry. The development of psychiatric symptoms can be explained by a combination of environmental stress events and genetic vulnerability. One common form of environmental stress with high impact on health is sexual abuse.

Aims: To investigate the prevalence and co-occurrence of symptoms of ADHD and depression in relation to experiences of sexual abuse in a large adolescent general population.

Method: All 15- and 18-year-old students (n = 4910) in the Swedish county of Vestmanland answered a school-based screening instrument including the six-question ADHD self-rating scale (ASRS), the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) and questions relating to experiences of sexual abuse.

Results: The prevalence of co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression was 2.4% (boys 1.0%, girls 3.9%). The prevalence of experience of any sexual abuse was 20.9% (boys 13.3%, girls 28.7%). Of those with co-occurring symptoms, 48% of the boys and 47% of the girls reported a history of sexual abuse.

Conclusions: School-based screening for co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression might be a method that identifies students at psychiatric and psychosocial risk.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2011. Vol. 65, nr 5, s. 315-322
Nyckelord [en]
ADHD, adolescents, depression, sex differences, sexual abuse
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykiatri
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-153363DOI: 10.3109/08039488.2010.545894ISI: 000295001900006PubMedID: 21189056OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-153363DiVA, id: diva2:416532
Tillgänglig från: 2011-05-12 Skapad: 2011-05-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-11Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Co-occurring Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Depression: Sex, Aetiology, Help-Seeking and Assessment
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Co-occurring Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Depression: Sex, Aetiology, Help-Seeking and Assessment
2014 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The general aim of the thesis was to contribute to the knowledge about co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression in adolescence, focusing on sex differences, as well as aetiology, help-seeking and assessment.

Studies I–III used epidemiological samples of self-reports from all students in Västmanland aged 15–16 and 17–18 years. Study I investigated the prevalence of co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression, as well as associations between co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression and one environmental stress factor; experience of sexual abuse. Study II examined associations between one biological factor—a polymorphism in TFAP-2βand co-occurring symptoms of ADHD with andco-occurringsymptoms of depression. Study III investigated the association between the parent–adolescent relationship and seeking help from specialized mental health services in relation to symptoms of ADHD and/or depression. Study IV was a clinical study among adolescent psychiatric patients that compared self-reported ADHD symptoms via the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale–Adolescent version (ASRS-A) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale–Adolescent–Screening version (ASRS-A-S) with an ADHD diagnosis determined by the gold-standard method; the Kiddie Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview.

Studies I–III showed that the phenotype of co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression is frequent, with a distinct preponderance among girls. Approximately 50% of both boys and girls with co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression had also experienced sexual abuse, indicating that this is a group with multiple risk factors for long-term impaired mental health.

Results also support biological sex differences because girls with symptoms of ADHD and a common polymorphism of TFAP-2β (absence of a 9 repeat) reported more symptoms of depression, but boys did not.

Further, only 5% of the adolescents with symptoms of ADHD and/or depression sought help from specialized mental health services. The co-occurrence of symptoms of ADHD and depression was a stronger predictor of help-seeking than all other psychosocial factors investigated, including secure attachment cognitions styles to parents. Among help-seeking girls, co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression were more common than symptoms of ADHD without co-occurring symptoms of depression.

The ASRS-A/ASRS-A-S showed promising psychometric properties for further validation in adolescentsresults as a screening tool for use in adolescents.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. s. 90
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 976
Nyckelord
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, adolescent, sex, sexual abuse, transcription factor AP-2β, help-seeking, attachment object, validation study
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicin och hälsovetenskap
Forskningsämne
Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-219389 (URN)978-91-554-8892-5 (ISBN)
Disputation
2014-04-11, Aros Congress Center, Munkgatan 7, Västerås, 13:15 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2014-03-21 Skapad: 2014-02-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2014-04-29

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