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Deriving Cost-Efficient Strategies for Observational Assessments of Postural Loads    
2012 (Engelska)Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Studies aimed at optimizing resource allocation between different sampling stages are characterized by both simplicity and incompleteness in optimization and economic analysis. The aim of this study was therefore to completely resolve the allocation problem for a four-stage measurement strategy devoted to observational assessment of work-related postural loads with the precision of the mean estimate considered as ‘output’. The derived demand functions for inputs to the four stages were used to derive functions for the minimized cost and the maximized precision of the measurement strategy. The application of the theoretical results to a working posture assessment study led to increased cost efficiency of the measurement strategy investigated in the study. Under the additional constraint that the optimal values must be integers, optimization of this measurement strategy would result in either a 12% reduction in cost or a 7% increase in precision. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2012.
Nyckelord [en]
measurement strategy; demand function; technical efficiency; productive efficiency; cost function
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicin och hälsovetenskap
Forskningsämne
Arbets- och miljömedicin
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-185419OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-185419DiVA, id: diva2:571689
Projekt
Kostnadseffektiv datainsamling om fysisk arbetsbelastning
Forskningsfinansiär
FAS, Forskningsrådet för arbetsliv och socialvetenskapTillgänglig från: 2012-11-23 Skapad: 2012-11-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2013-01-14
Ingår i avhandling
1. Cost-Efficient Designs for Assessing Work-Related Biomechanical Exposures
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Cost-Efficient Designs for Assessing Work-Related Biomechanical Exposures
2012 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Work-related disorders due to biomechanical exposures have been subject to extensive research. Studies addressing these exposures have, however, paid limited attention to an efficient use of resources in exposure assessment. The present thesis investigates cost-efficient procedures for assessment of work-related biomechanical exposures, i.e. procedures aiming at a proper balance between statistical and economic performance.

Paper I is a systematic review of tools used in literature providing cost-efficient data collection designs. Two main approaches were identified in nine publications, i.e. comparing cost efficiency among alternative data collection designs, and optimizing resource allocation between different stages of data collection, e.g. subjects and samples within subjects. The studies presented, in general, simplified analyses, in particular with respect to economics.

Paper II compared the cost-efficiency of four video-based techniques for assessing upper arm postures. The comparison was based both on a comprehensive model of cost and error and additionally on two simplified models. Labour costs were a dominant factor in the cost efficiency comparison. Measurement bias and costs other than labour cost influenced the rank and economic evaluation of the assessment techniques.

Paper III compared the cost efficiency of different combinations of direct and indirect methods for exposure assessments. Although a combination of methods could significantly reduce the total cost of obtaining a desired level of precision, the total cost was, in the investigated scenario, lowest when only direct measurements were performed. However, when the total number of measurements was fixed, a combination was the most cost efficient choice.

In Paper IV, demand functions were derived for a four-stage measurement strategy with the focus of either minimizing the cost for a required precision, or maximizing the precision for a predetermined budget. The paper presents algorithms for identifying optimal values of measurement inputs at all four stages, adjusted to integers, as necessary for practical application.

In summary, the thesis shows that it is important to address all sources of costs and errors associated with alternative measurement designs in any particular study, and that an optimal determination of samples at different stages can be identified in several cases not previously addressed in the literature.         

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. s. 70
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 848
Nyckelord
measurement strategy; postural loads; statistical performance; optimization; economic evaluation; resource allocation; input costs; cost function; returns to scale; elasticity
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicin och hälsovetenskap
Forskningsämne
Arbets- och miljömedicin
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-185526 (URN)978-91-554-8556-6 (ISBN)
Disputation
2013-01-30, Arbets- och miljömedicin, Ulleråkersvägen 40, Uppsala, 13:00 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2013-01-09 Skapad: 2012-11-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2013-02-11Bibliografiskt granskad

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