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A Cross-Cultural Approach to Psychological Mechanisms Underlying Emotional Reactions to Music
Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
2017 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Music plays a crucial role in everyday life by enabling listeners to seek individual emotional experiences. To explain why such emotions occur, we must understand the underlying process that mediates between surface-level features of the music and aroused emotions. This thesis aimed to investigate how musical emotions are mediated by psychological mechanisms from a cross-cultural perspective.

Study I manipulated four mechanisms by selecting ecologically valid pieces of music that featured information relevant for each mechanism. The results suggested that listeners’ emotions could be successfully predicted based on theoretically based manipulations of target mechanisms. However, Study I featured only listeners from a single culture, neglecting the possible role of contextual and individual factors.

Study II investigated the prevalence of emotions, mechanisms, and listening motives in a web survey featuring listeners from both individualist and collectivist countries. Results indicated that patterns of prevalence of emotions and mechanisms were quite similar across cultures. Still, Study II found that certain emotions such as nostalgia and the mechanism episodic memory were more frequent in collectivist cultures. In contrast, sadness and the mechanism musical expectancy were more frequent in individualist cultures. Study II also suggested that listening motives were country-specific, rather than subject to the individualism-collectivism dimension.

Study III explored how particular mechanisms are manifested within a collectivist cultural setting with great potential for deeply felt emotions: fado music in Portugal. Interviews with listeners provided in-depth information on how the cultural context might shape listening motives and emotions. The results revealed that listeners strived for musical experiences that would arouse culturally valued emotions. Music-evoked nostalgia and contextual factors were regarded as important and contributed to an enhanced sense of wellbeing.

Study IV tested the influence of lyrics on the emotions induced by Swedish and Portuguese pieces of music. The results revealed cross-cultural differences in how lyrics influenced emotions. The differences were not related to the music’s origin, but to the listener’s origin, suggesting that the impact of lyrics depends on the cultural background of the listener.

In conclusion, the thesis suggests that cultural factors serve as moderators of effects of biologically based mechanisms for emotion induction.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. , s. 87
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 137
Emneord [en]
cross-cultural perspective, emotion, functions, music, mechanisms
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314870ISBN: 978-91-554-9818-4 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-314870DiVA, id: diva2:1072410
Disputas
2017-03-31, Auditorium Minus, Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-03-10 Laget: 2017-02-06 Sist oppdatert: 2017-03-20
Delarbeid
1. From sound to significance: Exploring the mechanisms underlying emotional reactions to music
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>From sound to significance: Exploring the mechanisms underlying emotional reactions to music
2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: American Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0002-9556, E-ISSN 1939-8298, Vol. 128, nr 3, s. 281-304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

A common approach to studying emotional reactions to music is to attempt to obtain direct links between musical surface features such as tempo and a listener's responses. However, such an analysis ultimately fails to explain why emotions are aroused in the listener. In this article we explore an alternative approach, which aims to account for musical emotions in terms of a set of psychological mechanisms that are activated by different types of information in a musical event. This approach was tested in 4 experiments that manipulated 4 mechanisms (brain stem reflex, contagion, episodic memory, musical expectancy) by selecting existing musical pieces that featured information relevant for each mechanism. The excerpts were played to 60 listeners, who were asked to rate their felt emotions on 15 scales. Skin conductance levels and facial expressions were measured, and listeners reported subjective impressions of relevance to specific mechanisms. Results indicated that the target mechanism conditions evoked emotions largely as predicted by a multimechanism framework and that mostly similar effects occurred across the experiments that included different pieces of music. We conclude that a satisfactory account of musical emotions requires consideration of how musical features and responses are mediated by a range of underlying mechanisms.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261219 (URN)000359014200001 ()
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Research Council
Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-09-08 Laget: 2015-08-31 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-04
2. Prevalence of emotions, mechanisms, and motives in music listening: A comparison of individualist and collectivist cultures
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Prevalence of emotions, mechanisms, and motives in music listening: A comparison of individualist and collectivist cultures
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Psychomusicology, ISSN 0275-3987, E-ISSN 2162-1535Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Accepted
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310598 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-12-16 Laget: 2016-12-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-13
3. Understanding nostalgia and sadness in fado music: A qualitative approach to the psychological mechanisms underlying musical emotions
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Understanding nostalgia and sadness in fado music: A qualitative approach to the psychological mechanisms underlying musical emotions
(engelsk)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig) Submitted
Emneord
Fado music, Nostalgia, Psychological mechanisms, Qualitative method, Sadness, Wellbeing
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-312498 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-01-27 Laget: 2017-01-10 Sist oppdatert: 2017-02-07
4. When words matter: Lyrics and their relationship to musical emotions in Portugal and Sweden
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>When words matter: Lyrics and their relationship to musical emotions in Portugal and Sweden
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Emneord
Cross-cultural comparison, Emotion, Lyrics, Mechanisms, Music
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-312500 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-01-27 Laget: 2017-01-10 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-13

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