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Increased prevalence of antibiotic resistant E. coli in gulls sampled in Southcentral Alaska is associated with urban environments
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
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2016 (English)In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 32334Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background : Antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose challenges to healthcare delivery systems globally; however, limited information is available regarding the prevalence and spread of such bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in large-bodied gulls ( Larus spp.) at urban and remote locations in Southcentral Alaska to gain inference into the association between antibiotic resistance in wildlife and anthropogenically influenced habitats. Methods : Escherichia coli was cultured ( n 115 isolates) from fecal samples of gulls (n 160) collected from a remote location, Middleton Island, and a more urban setting on the Kenai Peninsula. Results : Screening of E. coli from fecal samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls ( Larus glaucescens )at Middleton Island revealed 8% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 2% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In contrast, 55% of E. coli isolates derived from fecal samples collected from large-bodied gulls (i.e. glaucous, herring [ Larus argentatus ], and potentially hybrid gulls) on the Kenai Peninsula were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 22% were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In addition, total of 16% of the gull samples from locations on the Kenai Peninsula harbored extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolates (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBL] and plasmid-encoded AmpC [pAmpC]), in contrast to Middleton Island where no ESBL- or pAmpC-producing isolates were detected. Conclusion : Our findings indicate that increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is associated with urban environments in Southcentral Alaska and presumably influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Further investigation is warranted to assess how migratory birds may maintain and spread antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of relevance to human and animal health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 6, no 1, article id 32334
Keywords [en]
ESBL, pAmpC, antimicrobial resistance, anthropogenic, gull
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319621DOI: 10.3402/iee.v6.32334PubMedID: 27649798OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-319621DiVA, id: diva2:1087284
Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2019-11-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Antibiotic resistance gone wild: A One Health perspective on carriage, selection and transmission of Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporinase- and Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antibiotic resistance gone wild: A One Health perspective on carriage, selection and transmission of Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporinase- and Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Antibiotics have saved millions of lives since they came into clinical use during the Second World War in the 1940s. Today, our effective use of antibiotics is under great threat due to emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This thesis addresses the problems of antibiotic resistance from a ”One Health” perspective. The focus is on antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) in the environment and wildlife, and also considering the situation in healthy humans and livestock. 

In Paper I-III, high occurrence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) -producing E. coli and/or K. pneumoniae was detected in fecal samples from wild birds, and the bacteria had genetic similarities to bacteria that cause disease in humans. Proximity to humans was associated with higher occurrence of cephalosporinase (ESBL and pAmpC)-producing E. coli in wild gulls. In Paper IV, ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli was enriched in the gut of mallards exposed to low concentrations of ciprofloxacin, and plasmid conjugation between E. coli bacteria readily took place. In Paper V, carbapenem resistant and blaOXA-48 harbouring- E. coli/K. pneumoniae was rare, but present in healthy humans in rural Cambodia, while cephalosporinase-producing E. coli/K. pneumoniae was common in both humans and livestock. The same ESBL/pAmpC genes were detected in humans and livestock, and exposure to animal manure and slaughter products were risk factors for fecal carriage in humans.

In conclusion, wild birds can function as potential resistance reservoirs and sentinels for antibiotic resistant E. coli. Environmental pollution from humans is the primary source for antibiotic resistant Enterobacteriaceae found in wildlife, but selection for antibiotic resistant bacteria may also occur in wild birds. The results indicate that transmission of cephalosporinase-producing E. coli/K. pneumoniae occur between wildlife, humans and livestock, but more in-depth molecular work is needed to determine the mechanisms of dissemination. The high community carriage of multidrug-resistant bacteria in rural Cambodia is worrying and highlights Southeast Asia as a hotspot for antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance surveillance is biased towards high-income countries and research should be focused more on low- and middle-income countries, and also include the important “One Health” perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 79
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1617
Keywords
Antibiotic resistance, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, ESBL, AmpC, Carbapenemase, ciprofloxacin resistance, colistin resistance, rural, wildlife, birds, sub-MIC, MSC, Cambodia, environment, epidemiology
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Research subject
Infectious Diseases
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-397218 (URN)978-91-513-0817-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-01-24, Tripple room, Navet ground floor, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-12-18 Created: 2019-11-20 Last updated: 2020-01-13

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Atterby, ClaraJärhult, Josef

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