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Anxiety and depression affect pain drawings in cervical degenerative disc disease
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2724-6372
Karolinska Inst, Dept Learning Informat Management & Eth, Stockholm, Sweden..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2111-6868
2017 (English)In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 99-107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Pain drawings have been frequently used in the preoperative evaluation of spine patients. Until now most investigations have focused on low back pain patients, even though pain drawings are used in neck pain patients as well. The aims of this study were to investigate the pain drawing and its association to preoperative demographics, psychological impairment, and pain intensity. Methods: We carried out a post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial, comparing cervical disc replacement to fusion for radiculopathy related to degenerative disc disease. Preoperatively the patients completed a pain drawing, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and a visual analogue scale (VAS). The pain drawing was evaluated according to four established methods, now modified for cervical conditions. Comparisons were made between the pain drawing and age, sex, smoking, and employment status as well as HADS and VAS. Results: Included were 151 patients, mean age of 47 years, female/male: 78/73. Pain drawing results were not affected by age, sex, smoking, and employment status. Patients with non-neurogenic pain drawings according to the modified method by Ransford had higher points on HADS-anxiety, HADS-depression, and HADS-total. Patients with markings in the head region had higher score on HADS-depression. Markings in the neck and lower arm region were associated with high values of VAS-neck and VAS-arm. Conclusions: Pain drawings were affected by both pain intensity and anxiety/depression in cervical spine patients. Therefore, the pain drawing can be a useful tool when interpreting the patients' pain in correlation to psychological impairment and pain location.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD , 2017. Vol. 122, no 2, p. 99-107
Keywords [en]
Cervical spine, degenerative disc disease, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, pain drawings, pain modality, surgical treatment
National Category
Orthopaedics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323497DOI: 10.1080/03009734.2017.1319441ISI: 000401756500005PubMedID: 28503982OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-323497DiVA, id: diva2:1114205
Available from: 2017-06-22 Created: 2017-06-22 Last updated: 2019-02-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Cervical Radiculopathy: Studies on Pain Analysis and Treatment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cervical Radiculopathy: Studies on Pain Analysis and Treatment
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Knowledge about how to interpret pain-analyzing tools such as the pain drawing test and the visual analog scale (VAS) in cervical spine patients are sparse; hence, they have never been validated for this subgroup of patients. The method of artificial disc replacement (ADR) has been developed as an alternative treatment to fusion surgery after decompression for cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD) with radiculopathy. Preserved motion of ADR devices aims to prevent immobilization side effects such as stiffness, dysphagia and adjacent segment pathology. Long-term follow-ups of these devices compared with the gold standard treatment are needed to create future guidelines.

Objectives: This thesis aims at (1) validating the pain drawing as an investigational tool for the cervical spine, (2) validating the VAS for the cervical spine regarding the measurement noise and the minimum clinically important difference (MCID), (3) comparing ADR with fusion surgery at 5-years of follow-up regarding outcome and complications in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) as well as in the Swedish spine (Swespine) registry, and (4) investigating possible predictors to outcome after surgical treatment of cervical radiculopathy.

Methods: An RCT with 153 patients undergoing surgery for cervical radiculopathy was performed. Baseline data, the Neck disability index (NDI), two sets of VAS-neck and VAS-arm scores, the EQ-5D, Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), Dysphagia short questionnaire and a pain drawing test were gathered preoperatively and after 5 years. Radiographs in flexion/extension and MRIs were done preoperatively and at follow-up. All patients registered in Swespine since January 1st, 2006 with cervical DDD and radiculopathy treated with ADR or fusion surgery, were included. Baseline data, the NDI, EQ-5D, and VAS-neck and VAS-arm scores were analyzed at 1, 2, 5 and 10-years of follow-up as well as the information regarding secondary surgeries.

Results: Pain drawings interpreted with the simple body region method showed good inter-rater reliability in cervical spine patients. Markings in the upper arm region on the pain drawing predicted surgical treatment outcome and markings in the head region predicted depression. The measurement noise was ~10 mm and the MCID was ~20 mm on a 100 mm pain VAS. In both the RCT and Swespine register the outcome after ADR surgery were comparable with fusion at 5 years of follow-up, except for an elevated risk regarding secondary surgery on the index level in the ADR group. Fifty percent of the patients in the RCT, allocated to ADR surgery had preserved motion of less than 5°, at the 5-year follow-up, and 25%, mostly men were spontaneously fused. Preserved motion did not prevent adjacent segment pathology. High values of preoperative HADS scores were negative predictors of outcome.

Conclusions: In patients with cervical DDD and radiculopathy both the pain drawing test and the VAS are validated tools to interpret the patients’ pain. Preoperative mental distress affects long-term outcome much more than the allocated treatment, ADR or fusion surgery in patients with cervical radiculopathy.

Clinical Trial Registration: ISRCTN, registration number: 44347115.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 111
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1442
Keywords
Cervical radiculopahy, Artificial disc replacement
National Category
Orthopaedics
Research subject
Orthopaedics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-345977 (URN)978-91-513-0272-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-05-05, Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-04-10 Created: 2018-03-13 Last updated: 2018-04-10

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MacDowall, AnnaRobinson, YohanOlerud, Claes

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