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Divulging the Hidden Capacity and Sodiation Kinetics of NaxC6Cl4O2: A High Voltage Organic Cathode for Sodium Rechargeable Batteries
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Mat & Engn, Appl Mat Phys, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
2017 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 121, no 26, p. 14027-14036Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the current emerging sustainable organic battery field, quinones are seen as one of the prime candidates for application in rechargeable battery electrodes. Recently, C6Cl4O2, a modified quinone, has been proposed as a high voltage organic cathode. However, the sodium insertion mechanism behind the cell reaction remained unclear due to the nescience of the right crystal structure. Here, the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) together with an evolutionary algorithm was employed to elucidate the crystal structures of the compounds NaxC6Cl4O2 (x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2). Along with the usefulness of PBE functional to reflect the experimental potential, also the importance of the hybrid functional to divulge the hidden theoretical capacity is evaluated. We showed that the experimentally observed lower specific capacity is a result of the great stabilization of the intermediate phase Na1.5C6Cl4O2. The calculated activation barriers for the ionic hops are 0.68, 0.40, and 0.31 eV, respectively, for NaC6Cl4O2, Na1.5C6Cl4O2, and Na2C6Cl4O2. These results indicate that the kinetic process must not be a limiting factor upon Na insertion. Finally, the correct prediction of the specific capacity has confirmed that the theoretical strategy used, employing evolutionary simulations together with the hybrid functional framework, can rightly model the thermodynamic process in organic electrode compounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 121, no 26, p. 14027-14036
National Category
Materials Engineering Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329995DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b03621ISI: 000405252800007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-329995DiVA, id: diva2:1149082
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Research CouncilStandUp
Note

Divulging the Hidden Capacity and Sodiation Kinetics of NaxC6Cl4O2: A High Voltage Organic Cathode for Sodium Rechargeable Batteries

Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2018-12-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Energy Storage Materials: Insights From ab Initio Theory: Diffusion, Structure, Thermodynamics and Design.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Storage Materials: Insights From ab Initio Theory: Diffusion, Structure, Thermodynamics and Design.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The development of science and technology have provided a lifestyle completely dependent on energy consumption. Devices such as computers and mobile phones are good examples of how our daily life depends on electric energy. In this scenario, energy storage technologies emerge with strategic importance providing efficient ways to transport and commercialize the produced energy. Rechargeable batteries come as the most suitable alternative to fulfill the market demand due to their higher energy- and power- density when compared with other electrochemical energy storage systems. In this context, during the production of this thesis, promising compounds for advanced batteries application were investigated from the theoretical viewpoint. The framework of the density functional theory has been employed together with others theoretical tools to study properties such as ionic diffusion, redox potential, electronic structure and crystal structure prediction.

Different organic materials were theoretically characterized with quite distinct objectives. For instance, a protocol able to predict the redox potential in solution of long oligomers were developed and tested against experimental measurements. Strategies such as anchoring of small active molecules on polymers backbone have also been investigated through a screening process that determined the most promising candidates. Methods such as evolutionary simulation and basin-hopping algorithm were employed to search for global minimum crystal structures of small molecules and inorganic compounds working as a cathode of advanced sodium batteries. The crystal structure evolution of C6Cl4O2 upon Na insertion was unveiled and the main reasons behind the lower specific capacity obtained in the experiment were clarified. Ab initio molecular dynamics and the nudged elastic band method were employed to understand the underlying ionic diffusion mechanisms in the recently proposed Alluaudite and Eldfellite cathode materials. Moreover, it was demonstrated that electronic conduction in Na2O2, a byproduct of the Na-O2 battery, occurs via hole polarons hopping. Important physical and chemical insights were obtained during the production of this thesis. It finally supports the development of low production cost, environmental friendliness and efficient electrode compounds for advanced secondary batteries. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. p. 83
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1584
Keywords
Density Functional Theory, Defects Diffusion, Thermodynamics and Batteries.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331399 (URN)978-91-513-0122-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-07, Polhemsalen, Ångström Laboratory, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-10-19 Last updated: 2018-03-07
2. Materials Modelling for Energy Harvesting: From Conversion to Application through Storage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Materials Modelling for Energy Harvesting: From Conversion to Application through Storage
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this Ph.D. thesis, ab initio density functional theory along with molecular dynamics and global optimization methods are used to unveil and understand the structures and properties of energy relevant materials. In this connection, the following applications are considered: i. electrocatalyst for solar fuel production through water splitting, ii. hybrid perovskite solar cell for generation of electrical energy and iii. Battery materials to store the electrical energy. The water splitting mechanism in terms of hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER) on the catalytic surfaces has been envisaged based on the free energy diagram, named reaction coordinate, of the reaction intermediates. The Ti-functionalized two-dimensional (2D) borophene monolayer has been emerged as a promising material for HER and OER mechanisms as compared to the pristine borophene sheet. Further investigation in the series of this noble metal free monolayer catalyst is 2D Al2C monolayer both in form of pristine and functionalized with nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), boron (B), and sulphur (S). It has been observed that only B substituted Al2C shows very close to thermoneutral, that could be the most promising candidate for HER on functionalized Al2C monolayer. The adsorption of O* intermediate is stronger in S-substituted Al2C, whereas it is less strongly adsorbed on N-substituted Al2C. The subsequent consideration is being the case of n-type doping (W) along with Ti codoped in BiVO4 to enhance the efficiency of BiVO4 photoanode for water splitting. The determined adsorption energy and corresponding Gibbs free energies depict that the Ti site is energetically more favorable for water splitting. Moreover, the Ti site possesses a lower overpotential in the W–Ti codoped sample as compared to the mono-W doped sample. We have also explored the effect of mixed cation and mixed anion substitution in the hybrid perovskite in terms of structural stability, electronic properties and optical response of hybrid perovskite crystal structures. It has been found that the insertion of bromine (Br) into the system could modulate the stability of the Guanidinium lead iodide (GAPbI3) hybrid perovskite.  Moreover, the band gap of the mixed hybrid perovskite is increased with the inclusion of smaller Br anion while replacing partially the larger iodine (I) anion. Finally the electrochemical storage mechanism for Sodium (Na) and lithium (Li) ion insertion has been envisaged in inorganic electrode (eldfellite, NaFe(SO4)2) as well as in more sustainable organic electrode (di-lithium terephthalate, Li2TP). The full desodiation capability of the eldfellite enhances the capacity while the activation energies (higher than 1 eV) for the Na+ ion diffusion for the charged state lower the ionic insertion rate. The key factor as the variation of Li-O coordination in the terephthalate, for the disproportionation redox reaction in Li2TP is also identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 96
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1760
Keywords
Materials Modelling, DFT, Energy Materials, Photocatalysis, HER and OER, Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells, Stability, Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Na-ion battery, Organic Crystal Battery
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369695 (URN)978-91-513-0544-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-02-15, 80101, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2018-12-19 Last updated: 2019-02-18

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Araujo, Rafael Barros Neves deBanerjee, AmitavaAhuja, Rajeev

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