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Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000 to 260,000 years ago
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Centre for Anthropological Research and Department of Anthropology and Development Studies, University of Johannesburg, Post Office Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa..ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8160-9621
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Centre for Anthropological Research and Department of Anthropology and Development Studies, University of Johannesburg, Post Office Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
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2017 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 358, no 6363, p. 652-655Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Southern Africa is consistently placed as a potential region for the evolution of Homo sapiens We present genome sequences, up to 13x coverage, from seven ancient individuals from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The remains of three Stone Age hunter-gatherers (about 2000 years old) were genetically similar to current-day southern San groups, and those of four Iron Age farmers (300 to 500 years old) were genetically similar to present-day Bantu-language speakers. We estimate that all modern-day Khoe-San groups have been influenced by 9 to 30% genetic admixture from East Africans/Eurasians. Using traditional and new approaches, we estimate the first modern human population divergence time to between 350,000 and 260,000 years ago. This estimate increases the deepest divergence among modern humans, coinciding with anatomical developments of archaic humans into modern humans, as represented in the local fossil record.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 358, no 6363, p. 652-655
National Category
Archaeology Evolutionary Biology Genetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334636DOI: 10.1126/science.aao6266ISI: 000414240500038PubMedID: 28971970OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-334636DiVA, id: diva2:1160191
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 642-2013-8019; 621-2014-5211Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationGöran Gustafsson Foundation for promotion of scientific research at Uppala University and Royal Institute of TechnologyThe Wenner-Gren Foundation
Note

Carina M. Schlebusch and Helena Malmström contributed equally to this work

Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-24 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Where our feet have taken us: Examples of human contact, migration, and adaptation as revealed by ancient DNA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Where our feet have taken us: Examples of human contact, migration, and adaptation as revealed by ancient DNA
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In spite of our extensive knowledge of the human past, certain key questions remain to be answered about human prehistory. One involves the nature of cultural change in material culture through time from the perspective of how different ancient human groups interacted with one another. The other is how humans have adapted to the different environments as they migrated and populated the rest of the world from their origin in Africa. For my thesis I have investigated examples of human evolutionary history using genetic information from ancient human remains. Chapter 1 focused on the nature of possible interaction between the Pitted Ware Culture (PWC) and Battle Axe Culture (BAC) on the island of Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. Through the analysis of 4500 year old human remains from three PWC burial sites, I found that the existence of BAC influences in these burial sites was the result of cultural and not demic influence from the BAC. In chapter 2, I investigated the ancestry of a Late Stone Age individual from the southwestern Cape of South Africa. Population genetic analyses revealed that this individual was genetically affiliated with Khoe groups in southern Africa, a genetic make-up that is today absent from the Cape. Chapter 3 investigated the genetic landscape of prehistoric individuals from southern Africa. Specifically, I explored frequencies of adaptive variants between Late Stone Age and Iron Age individuals. I found an increase in disease resistance alleles in Iron Age individuals and attributed this to the effects of the Bantu expansion. Chapter 4 incorporated a wider range of trait-associated variants among a greater number of modern-day populations and ancient individuals in Africa. I found that many allele frequency patterns found in modern populations follow the routes of major migrations which took place in the African Holocene. The thesis attests to the complexity of human demographic history in general, and how migration contributes to adaptation by dispersing novel adaptive variants to populations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 78
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1880
Keywords
Human demography, migration, adaptation, human contact, ancient DNA, human evolution, African prehistory, Scandinavian prehistory
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Research subject
Biology with Specialisation in Human Evolution and Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-397222 (URN)978-91-513-0815-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-01-17, Lindahlsalen, Evolutionary Biology Centre EBC, Norbyvagen 18, 75236, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
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Available from: 2019-12-16 Created: 2019-11-18 Last updated: 2020-01-13

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Schlebusch, CarinaMalmström, HelenaGünther, TorstenSjödin, PerCoutinho, AlexandraEdlund, HannaMunters, Arielle R.Vicente, MárioJakobsson, Mattias

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