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Plasma Enhanced Chemical- and Physical- Vapor Depositions Using Hollow Cathodes
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. (The Plasma group)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1499-139X
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Development of coating deposition technologies, in terms of performance and costs, is an ongoing process. A promising class of deposition technologies are based on hollow cathode discharges.

This thesis investigates performance of selected hollow cathode plasma sources developed at the Plasma group, at Uppsala University for coating deposition at moderate pressures. Amorphous carbon film deposition was investigated by Radio frequency (RF) Hollow Cathode Plasma Jet (RHCPJ) and Magnets-in-Motion (M-M) linear hollow cathode plasma sources. Titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited by a magnetized Hollow Cathode Enhanced magnetron Target (HoCET). Aluminium nitride (AlN) deposition by RHCPJ was compared with High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS).

Amorphous carbon films were prepared on glass substrates without an interlayer. The AlN and TiN films were deposited on Si substrates. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to analyze plasma composition. The coating structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The thickness of films was measured by scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. The TiN hardness was analyzed by microhardness test method and confirmed by nanoindentation analysis.

Adherent amorphous carbon coating deposition process was transferred from RHCPJ to the M-M linear hollow cathode. Utilizing the latter plasma source, it was found that thick and adherent amorphous carbon coatings can be deposited in a range of 0.25% to 0.5% of C2H2 in Ar at constant a deposition pressure of 0.3 Torr and 1200 W of RF power. Deposition rates of 0.2 μm/min and 0.375 μm/min respectively were reached. Self-delaminating, thick (50 μm) amorphous carbon films can be deposited at a deposition rate of 2.5 μm/min at 2% C2H2. A non-linear relation was observed between the deposition rate and the C2H2 content.

Utilizing the HoCET arrangement, high deposition rates of stoichiometric, polycrystalline TiN films are obtained. A maximum of 0.125 μm/min is obtained at 2.4% N2 in Ar, 1200 W RF power, 14 mTorr deposition pressure. TiN films deposited at 4 - 20% nitrogen contents displayed hardness values above 28 GPa reaching a maximum of 31.4 GPa at 5% N2.

For a (002) oriented AlN film deposition the RHCPJ offers deposition rates of up to 150 nm/min. Using the HiPIMS at comparable deposition conditions the AlN films were achieved at a rate of 24 nm/min.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. , p. 73
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1629
Keywords [en]
Hollow cathode, TiN, AlN, amorphous carbon, hybrid PVD/PE-CVD, ionized magnetron
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340572ISBN: 978-91-513-0230-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-340572DiVA, id: diva2:1179651
Public defence
2018-03-23, Polhemssalen (Ång/10134), Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, 75237, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
EIT KIC InnoEnergy IncoTrans
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyAvailable from: 2018-02-27 Created: 2018-02-01 Last updated: 2018-04-03
List of papers
1. Amorphous Carbon Films on Glass Prepared by Hollow Cathodes at Moderate Pressure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amorphous Carbon Films on Glass Prepared by Hollow Cathodes at Moderate Pressure
2016 (English)In: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, E-ISSN 2162-8777, Vol. 5, no 9, p. N57-N60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310693 (URN)10.1149/2.0311609jss (DOI)000387983000006 ()
Projects
EIT KIC InnoEnergy IncoTrans
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2016-12-19 Created: 2016-12-19 Last updated: 2018-02-01
2. Protective amorphous carbon coatings on glass substrates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protective amorphous carbon coatings on glass substrates
2017 (English)In: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 7, no 11, article id 115206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thick amorphous carbon films were deposited by the Magnets-in-Motion (M-M) rf linear hollow cathode at varying acetylene contents in Ar in a hybrid PVD/PE-CVD process directly on glass substrates. The hollow cathode plates manufactured from graphite were used as the PVD target. The measurements show that the films can reach thickness of up to 50 mu m at deposition rates of up to 2.5 mu m/min. Scratch test measurements confirm that well adhering films several mu m thick can be achieved at C2H2 contents of up to 0.5%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2017
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335470 (URN)10.1063/1.5002091 (DOI)000416825700056 ()
Projects
EIT KIC InnoEnergy IncoTrans
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
3. Raman Analysis of Amorphous Carbon Coatings Prepared by Hollow Cathodes at Moderate Pressure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Raman Analysis of Amorphous Carbon Coatings Prepared by Hollow Cathodes at Moderate Pressure
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of ISERD International Conference, San Diego, USA, June 21st-22nd, 2017, 2017, p. 1-5Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
Amorphous carbon, hollow cathode, hybrid PVD/PE-CVD, Raman analysis
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335472 (URN)978-93-86083-34-0 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Science and Innovative Engineering, San Diego, USA, June 21st-22nd, 2017
Projects
EIT KIC InnoEnergy IncoTrans
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2018-02-01
4. Optimal target-sputtering mode for Aluminum Nitride thin film deposition by high power pulse magnetron sputtering (HPPMS)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal target-sputtering mode for Aluminum Nitride thin film deposition by high power pulse magnetron sputtering (HPPMS)
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340571 (URN)
Projects
NSAF (Grant No. U1330113)NSFC 31300787Educational Comission of Hubei Province of China (Q20164301)
Available from: 2018-01-31 Created: 2018-01-31 Last updated: 2018-02-01
5. Reactive Deposition of TiN Films by Magnetron with Magnetized Hollow Cathode Enhanced Target
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reactive Deposition of TiN Films by Magnetron with Magnetized Hollow Cathode Enhanced Target
2018 (English)In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 152, p. 123-127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Magnetized Hollow Cathode Activated Magnetron in which the target is coupled with the hollow cathode magnetized by the magnetic field of the magnetron was tested in the reactive process of TiN deposition. Increased deposition rate compared to the Ti metal deposition rate was confirmed. The depositions as well as optical measurements were performed at several pressures in the reactor. The results of the TiN reactive deposition are presented and discussed, including the TiN deposition in pure nitrogen.

Keywords
Ionized magnetron, Reactive deposition in ionized magnetron, Magnetized hollow cathode, Hollow cathode activated magnetron, Hollow cathode enhanced target
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340514 (URN)10.1016/j.vacuum.2018.03.010 (DOI)000432499100018 ()
Available from: 2018-01-31 Created: 2018-01-31 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved

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