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Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials. CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasília, DF 70040-020, Brazil. (Nanoteknologi och funktionella material)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2546-7224
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials. (Nanotechnology and Functional Materials)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5196-4115
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials. (Nanoteknologi och funktionella material)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5496-9664
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2018 (English)In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 23, no 3, article id 601Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels) and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 23, no 3, article id 601
Keywords [en]
sulfonated beads; Cladophora nanocellulose; hemocompatibility; coagulation; complement system
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346209DOI: 10.3390/molecules23030601OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-346209DiVA, id: diva2:1190794
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationAvailable from: 2018-03-15 Created: 2018-03-15 Last updated: 2018-07-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Oxidized Cladophora nanocellulose derivatives: Functionalization towards biocompatible materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oxidized Cladophora nanocellulose derivatives: Functionalization towards biocompatible materials
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Nanocellulose is a promising candidate for biomedical applications because of its enhanced mechanical properties, increased surface area and greater porosity compared to bulk cellulose.

This thesis investigates the functionalization of Cladophora nanocellulose and evaluates the influence of these modifications on physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of the material.

An electrochemically assisted TEMPO-mediated oxidation setup produced cellulose materials with varying degrees of carboxyl groups. This approach allowed control of the charge applied during the process and adjustment of the carboxylation. Carboxylated nanocellulose membranes had smaller surface area and total pore volume and a more compact structure than the membranes of the unmodified material. Moreover, the introduction of carboxyl groups resulted in membranes with an aligned fiber pattern; the alignment and aggregation of the fibers tended to increase with higher degrees of oxidation.

Cytocompatibility studies using fibroblasts and osteoblastic cells have shown that the bioinert Cladophora nanocellulose membranes can be rendered bioactive by the introduction of carboxyl groups. Nevertheless, at least 260 µmol g-1 carboxyl groups are required to obtain nanocellulose membranes that promote cell adhesion and spreading comparable to those observed when cells are cultured on tissue culture material.

In parallel, a periodate oxidation produced 10-20 µm 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose beads with very smooth and compact surfaces. This material was sulfonated up to 50% of the aldehyde groups, resulting in charged, porous structures that maintained the spherical shape. The mesoporous assembly could be tailored by altering the degree of sulfonation, which also produced variations in surface charge, ζ-potential, specific density, surface area and thermal stability.

Because the physicochemical properties make these sulfonated beads potential candidates for immunosorption and blood-related applications, they were further characterized regarding hemocompatibility. In vitro studies showed that both sulfonated beads and unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose did not present hemolytic activity. The pro-coagulant activity of the sulfonated beads was significantly lower than that of the unmodified nanocellulose; however, the material’s modifications did not diminish the activation of the complement system.

The results presented in this thesis show that it is possible to tailor the biocompatibility of Cladophora nanocellulose by introducing chemical modifications to its structure and by carefully tuning its physicochemical properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 75
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1649
Keywords
Cladophora nanocellulose, TEMPO oxidation, periodate oxidation, sulfonation, cellulose beads, surface properties, biomaterials, cell studies, hemocompatibility
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346212 (URN)978-91-513-0280-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-05-09, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:30 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-03-15 Last updated: 2018-10-08

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Rocha, IgorLindh, JonasHong, JaanStrömme, MariaMihranyan, AlbertFerraz, Natalia

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