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Finite size effects: deuterium diffusion in nm thick vanadium layers
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
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2017 (English)In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 19, article id 123004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigate the effect of finite size on the chemical diffusion of deuterium in extremely thin V(001) layers. A five fold increase in the diffusion coefficient is observed at concentrations around 0.2 [D/V], when the thickness of the V is decreased from 28 to 14 atomic layers (approximate to 2.1-4.2 nm). The size dependent deuterium-deuterium interaction energy is argued to be the root of the observed changes as the diffusion rates are similar at low concentrations. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using finite-size effects to enhance the chemical diffusion of light interstitials in solids. We discuss the general applicability of these effects to other systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2017. Vol. 19, article id 123004
Keywords [en]
superlattices, optical transmission, deuterium diffusion, octahedral sites
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347665DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/aa94dfISI: 000424885300004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-347665DiVA, id: diva2:1195576
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Research CouncilAvailable from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2018-05-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The effect of nano-confinement on hydrogen uptake in metallic superlattices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of nano-confinement on hydrogen uptake in metallic superlattices
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The absorption of hydrogen is exothermic in vanadium whereas it is endothermic in iron and chromium. Investigations of the hydrogen uptake within Fe/V(001) and Cr/V(001) superlattices allow therefore a detailed exploration of finite size effects and the influence of boundaries on hydrogen absorption. Fe/V(001) and Cr/V(001) superlattices can be grown as single crystal structures with a small mosaic spread, as determined by X-ray reflectometry and diffraction. Furthermore when the thickness ratio of the constituents is kept constant the crystal quality can be retained in the range from a few up to 40 monolayer repeat distances (Λ). Neutron reflectometry was used to simultaneously determine the volume expansion and concentration of hydrogen in the vanadium layers. Large differences are found in the expansion of Fe/V(001) and Cr/V(001) superlattices, in good agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The findings are consistent with tetrahedral and octahedral site occupancy in Cr/V(001) and Fe/V(001) superlattices, respectively. Full fitting of the reflectivity pattern is required to obtainan accurate measure of expansion if the number of repeats is small. Under these conditions, the shift of the first order superlattice peak can be an inaccurate measure of the volume changes. By using a specially designed neutron scattering chamber, allowing simultaneous neutron and optical transmission measurements, it is found that the optical transmission scales linearly with hydrogen concentration. By comparing the experimental results to ab-initio DFT calculations, it is shown that optical transmission scales with electron density changes in the samples, explaining the linearity with concentration. This change is dominated by the hydrogen induced expansion of the lattices and depends therefore strongly on the site occupancy of the hydrogen. Finally, X-ray diffraction was used to address the local strain fields and the α to β phase transition, typically observed in bulk vanadium. Below 448 K the results are consistent with an α to β phase co-existence, separated along the surface normal of the samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala University, 2018. p. 65
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1682
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-350591 (URN)978-91-513-0360-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-06-14, Room 2001, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-14 Last updated: 2018-09-27

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Huang, WenPálsson, Gunnar K.Palonen, HeikkiDroulias, Sotirios A.Hartmann, OlaWolff, MaxHjörvarsson, Björvin

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