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Cope's rule and the adaptive landscape of dinosaur body size evolution
Univ Oxford, Dept Earth Sci, S Parks Rd, Oxford OX2 3AN, England..
Smithsonian Inst, Natl Museum Nat Hist, Dept Paleobiol, POB 37012,MRC 121, Washington, DC 20560 USA..
Smithsonian Inst, Natl Museum Nat Hist, Dept Paleobiol, POB 37012,MRC 121, Washington, DC 20560 USA..
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Paleobiologi.
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Vol. 61, nr 1, s. 13-48Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The largest known dinosaurs weighed at least 20million times as much as the smallest, indicating exceptional phenotypic divergence. Previous studies have focused on extreme giant sizes, tests of Cope's rule, and miniaturization on the line leading to birds. We use non-uniform macroevolutionary models based on Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and trend processes to unify these observations, asking: what patterns of evolutionary rates, directionality and constraint explain the diversification of dinosaur body mass? We find that dinosaur evolution is constrained by attraction to discrete body size optima that undergo rare, but abrupt, evolutionary shifts. This model explains both the rarity of multi-lineage directional trends, and the occurrence of abrupt directional excursions during the origins of groups such as tiny pygostylian birds and giant sauropods. Most expansion of trait space results from rare, constraint-breaking innovations in just a small number of lineages. These lineages shifted rapidly into novel regions of trait space, occasionally to small sizes, but most often to large or giant sizes. As with Cenozoic mammals, intermediate body sizes were typically attained only transiently by lineages on a trajectory from small to large size. This demonstrates that bimodality in the macroevolutionary adaptive landscape for land vertebrates has existed for more than 200million years.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
John Wiley & Sons, 2018. Vol. 61, nr 1, s. 13-48
Nyckelord [en]
dinosaur, body size, Cope's rule, adaptive landscape, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models, trend models, phylogenetic Bayesian information criterion
Nationell ämneskategori
Evolutionsbiologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-350119DOI: 10.1111/pala.12329ISI: 000418763800002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-350119DiVA, id: diva2:1204282
Forskningsfinansiär
EU, Europeiska forskningsrådet, 677774Tillgänglig från: 2018-05-07 Skapad: 2018-05-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-07Bibliografiskt granskad

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