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Self-Consumption of Photovoltaic Electricity in Residential Buildings
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. (Built Environment Energy Systems Group)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6745-3635
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Egenanvändning av solel i bostadshus (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Worldwide installations of photovoltaics (PV) have increased rapidly due to national subsidies and decreasing prices. One important market segment is building-applied PV systems, for which the generated electricity can be self-consumed. Self-consumption is likely to become important both for the profitability and to facilitate integration of high shares of PV in the power system. The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to examine opportunities and challenges with distributed PV in the power system on four system levels: detached houses, communities, distribution systems and national level. This was done through literature studies and computer simulations. Previous research has shown a larger potential to increase the PV self-consumption in detached houses by using battery storage rather than shifting the household appliance loads. This thesis shows that, on the community level, the self-consumption increased more when sharing one large storage instead of individual storages in each house. On the distribution system level, PV power curtailment was identified as an effective solution to reduce the risk of overvoltage due to high PV penetration levels. However, the curtailment losses were high: up to 28% of the electricity production had to be curtailed in the studied distribution grid with a PV penetration of 100% of the yearly electricity consumption. However, the penetration of distributed PV on a national level is not likely to reach these levels. Around 12% of the Swedish households were estimated to have PV systems in 2040, although the uncertainties in the results were high, mainly related to the development of the electricity prices. The low profits from both PV but especially battery systems reduce future market shares. If residential batteries could also be used for primary frequency control, the profitability and thus the market shares for PV and battery systems could increase. The overall conclusions are that improved self-consumption can increase the profitability of PV systems and lower the negative impacts on grids with high PV penetration. Energy storage has a large potential to increase the self-consumption, but the profitability is still low for a storage that is only used to increase the self-consumption.     

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. , p. 113
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1728
Keywords [en]
Photovoltaics, Solar energy, Self-consumption, Grid integration, Distributed generation, Energy storage, Curtailment, Power system
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362819ISBN: 978-91-513-0470-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-362819DiVA, id: diva2:1254956
Public defence
2018-11-29, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P37511-1Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-10-10 Last updated: 2018-11-19
List of papers
1. Photovoltaic self-consumption in buildings: A review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photovoltaic self-consumption in buildings: A review
2015 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 142, p. 80-94Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The interest in self-consumption of PV electricity from grid-connected residential systems is increasing among PV system owners and in the scientific community. Self-consumption can be defined as the share of the total PV production directly consumed by the PV system owner. With decreased subsidies for PV electricity in several countries, increased self-consumption could raise the profit of PV systems and lower the stress on the electricity distribution grid. This review paper summarizes existing research on PV self-consumption and options to improve it. Two options for increased self-consumption are included, namely energy storage and load management, also called demand side management (DSM). Most of the papers examine PV-battery systems, sometimes combined with DSM. The results show that it is possible to increase the relative self-consumption by 13-24% points with a battery storage capacity of 0.5-1. kW. h per installed kW PV power and between 2% and 15% points with DSM, both compared to the original rate of self-consumption. The total number of papers is however rather limited and further research and more comparative studies are needed to give a comprehensive view of the technologies and their potential. Behavioral responses to PV self-consumption and the impact on the distribution grid also need to be further studied.

Keywords
Photovoltaics; Self-consumption; Household electricity; Energy storage; Load shifting; Demand side management
National Category
Energy Engineering Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-246975 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.12.028 (DOI)000350935100008 ()2-s2.0-84921375090 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Småskalig solel i byggnader - kraft för förändring i energisystem och vardagsliv
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2015-03-12 Created: 2015-03-11 Last updated: 2018-10-10Bibliographically approved
2. Graphical analysis of photovoltaic generation and load matching in buildings: A novel way of studying self-consumption and self-sufficiency
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Graphical analysis of photovoltaic generation and load matching in buildings: A novel way of studying self-consumption and self-sufficiency
2019 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 250, p. 748-759Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Matching energy supply and demand, On-site PV, Self-consumption, Self-sufficiency, nearly zero energy buildings, nZEB
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362755 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.05.058 (DOI)000482244000060 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P42904-1
Note

Title in thesis list of papers: A meta-analysis for the matching between energy demand and on-site PV electricity supply in buildings

Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
3. Self-consumption enhancement and peak shaving of residential photovoltaics using storage and curtailment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-consumption enhancement and peak shaving of residential photovoltaics using storage and curtailment
2016 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 112, p. 221-231Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increasing the self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV) power is an important aspect to integrate more PV power in the power system. The profit for the PV system owner can increase and the stress on the power grid can be reduced. Previous research in the field has focused on either self-consumption of PV power in individual buildings or PV power curtailment for voltage control. In this paper self-consumption of residential PV power in a community of several single-family houses was investigated using high-resolution irradiance and power consumption data. Cases with individual or shared battery energy storages for the houses were examined. PV power curtailment was investigated as a method to reduce feed-in power to the grid, i.e. peak shaving. Results indicated that the self-consumption ratio increased when using shared instead of individual storage. Reducing the feed-in power from the community by almost 50% only led to maximum 7% yearly production losses due to curtailment and storage losses. The economics for shared storage are slightly better than for individual ones. These results suggest that residential PV-battery systems should use (i) shared energy storage options if local regulations allow it and (ii) PV power curtailment if there are incentives to lower the feed-in power.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Photovoltaics, Solar energy, Self-consumption, Energy storage, Battery, Curtailment
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-283612 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2016.06.039 (DOI)000385318700021 ()
Projects
Småskalig solel i byggnader – kraft för förändring i energisystem och vardaglivet
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P37511-1
Available from: 2016-04-13 Created: 2016-04-13 Last updated: 2018-10-10Bibliographically approved
4. Demand Side Management Using PV, Heat Pumps and Batteries: Effects on Community and Building Level
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demand Side Management Using PV, Heat Pumps and Batteries: Effects on Community and Building Level
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study examines how the energy management optimization on household level affects the maximum power flow in a community of houses and the contribution to load smoothening in the community. A detailed model of a single-family house with exhaust air heat pump and photovoltaic system is used in combination with high-resolution weather, electricity use and hot water use data. All five houses in the community are identical but the occupancy of the residents and their use of electric appliances and hot water differ. Results show no reduction of the maximum power delivered to the grid if the houses are operated to optimize the individual self-consumption and self-sufficiency. The highest aggregated power from the grid for the whole community occurred when the heat pumps were controlled by the PV electricity production but without any battery storage. This case also resulted in least smoothing of the aggregated household loads in the community. The conclusion of the study is that energy optimization for individual households in a community do not have to result in a reduction of the aggregated load and power production.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332679 (URN)
Conference
33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (EU PVSEC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 25 - 29 September, 2017
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P37511-1
Available from: 2017-10-31 Created: 2017-10-31 Last updated: 2018-10-10
5. Large-scale integration of photovoltaic power in a distribution grid using power curtailment and energy storage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-scale integration of photovoltaic power in a distribution grid using power curtailment and energy storage
2017 (English)In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 155, p. 1319-1325Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Photovoltaics, Power distribution system, Energy storage, Power and voltage control, Overvoltage
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328066 (URN)10.1016/j.solener.2017.07.083 (DOI)000414819900057 ()
Projects
Småskalig solel i byggnader – kraft för förändring i energisystem och vardaglivetUtvärdering av tekniska lösningar för att hantera omfattande anslutning av solcellssystem i eldistributionsnät
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P37511-1
Note

Photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an important component for the future energy system. High penetrationof PV power in a power distribution system might however lead to problems with overvoltage and overload. In this study, a method for PV power curtailment and placement of decentralized energy storage is developed to control voltage, feeder currents and distribution substation overloading. The method determines an individual feed-in power limit for each PV system owner based on a voltage-power relationship. Measured data from a 10 kV/400 V three-phase distribution grid in the Swedish municipality of Herrljunga with more than 5000 end-users and simulated PV electricity production data are used for a case study to verify the model. The method is evaluated for yearly PV electricity productionof up to 100% of the yearly electricity consumption. The results show that the method is able to prevent overvoltage for all penetration levels in the studied distribution grid, reduce the number of feeders affected by overcurrent and lower the maximum load on the two substations.

Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2018-10-10Bibliographically approved
6. Photovoltaics and opportunistic electric vehicle charging in the power system: a case study on a Swedish distribution grid
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photovoltaics and opportunistic electric vehicle charging in the power system: a case study on a Swedish distribution grid
2019 (English)In: IET Renewable Power Generation, ISSN 1752-1416, E-ISSN 1752-1424, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 710-716Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Renewable distributed generation and electric vehicles (EVs) are two important components in the transition to a more sustainable society. However, both pose new challenges to the power system due to the intermittent generation and EV charging load. In this case study, a power system consisting of a low- and medium-voltage rural and urban distribution grid with 5174 customers, high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) electricity and a fully electrified car fleet were assumed, and their impact on the grid was assessed. The two extreme cases of two summer weeks and two winter weeks with and without EV charging and a PV penetration varying between 0 and 100% of the annual electricity consumption were examined. Active power curtailment of the PV systems was used to avoid overvoltage. The results show an increased electricity consumption of 9.3% in the winter weeks and 17.1% in the summer weeks, a lowering of the minimum voltage by 1% at the most, and a marginal contribution by the EV charging to lower the need of PV power curtailment. This shows the minor impact of EV charging on the distribution grid, both in terms of allowing more PV power generation and in terms of lower voltage levels.

Keywords
battery powered vehicles, power grids, power consumption, photovoltaic power systems, power distribution economics, distributed power generation, power generation economics, demand side management, opportunistic electric vehicle, power system, Swedish distribution grid, renewable distributed generation, electric vehicles, intermittent generation, EV charging load, photovoltaic electricity, fully electrified car fleet, summer weeks, winter weeks, PV penetration, annual electricity consumption, active power curtailment, PV systems, PV power curtailment, PV power generation, EV, medium-voltage rural distribution grid, medium-voltage urban distribution grid, low-voltage rural distribution grid, low-voltage urban distribution grid
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-359430 (URN)10.1049/iet-rpg.2018.5082 (DOI)000462942900008 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P41015-1
Available from: 2018-09-02 Created: 2018-09-02 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
7. Market diffusion of residential PV + battery system driven by self-consumption: A comparison of Sweden and Germany
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Market diffusion of residential PV + battery system driven by self-consumption: A comparison of Sweden and Germany
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords
Photovoltaics, PV, Battery storage, Market diffusion, Self-consumption
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362756 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-10
8. The potential of using residential PV-battery systems to provide primary frequency control on a national level
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The potential of using residential PV-battery systems to provide primary frequency control on a national level
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Integration of Solar into Power Systems, Energynautics GmbH, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To keep the frequency stable in a synchronous electric grid, power sources providing primary frequency control (PFC) are needed. Today, hydro power dominates the PFC  market in the Nordic countries. However, if PFC can be offered as an ancillary service from PV-battery systems, the hydro power could be used more efficiently for low-cost electricity production. This can also improve the profitability of PV-battery systems. In this study of 2231 detached houses in Sweden, the potential to use residential PV-battery systems for PFC is examined. The results show that prices of up to 500 EUR/kWh excluding VAT for a 2.5 kW/5 kWh battery storage system can make enough PV-battery systems profitable to replace existing PFC sources in Sweden. The results are based on hourly electricity and PFC prices from 2015-2017 and a discount rate of 0%. If the prices for PFC are reduced by 50% and the discount rate is 5%, a system price of roughly 100 EUR/kWh excluding VAT would be enough to reach the same goal. The battery storage needs to be replaced during the lifespan of the PV system, meaning that the battery system prices are the average of the expected prices during the coming 25 years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Energynautics GmbH, 2018
Keywords
Photovoltaics, PV, battery storage, primary frequency control
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362754 (URN)
Conference
8th International Workshop on Integration of Solar into Power Systems, 16-17 October 2018, Stockholm, Sweden
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved

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