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Sandwich-structured nano/micro fiber-based separators for lithium metal batteries
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials. (Nanoteknologi och funktionella material)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6118-0226
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials. (Nanotechnology and Functional Materials)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5196-4115
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2019 (English)In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 55, p. 316-326Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although the increased need for high-energy/power-density energy storage systems has revived the research on lithium metal batteries (LMBs), the influence of the separator on the performance of LMBs is still generally neglected. In the present study, a sandwich-structured separator (referred to as the CGC separator below) composed of two 2.5µm thick cellulose nanofiber (CNF) surface layers and an intermediate 15µm thick glass microfiber (GMF) and CNF composite layer is described. While the CNF surface layers of the CGC separator feature a homogeneous distribution of nano-sized pores favoring the attainment of a homogeneous current distribution at both electrodes, the intermediate GMF/CNF layer contains macropores facilitating the ionic transport through the separator. The CGC separator exhibited a much better electrolyte wettability and thermal stability compared to a Celgard separator, due to the use of the hydrophilic and thermally stable CNFs and GMFs. It is also shown that the combination of nano-sized and micro-sized fibers used in the CGC separator yields a higher ionic conductivity than that for the commercial separator (1.14 vs. 0.49 mS cm−1). Moreover, the influence of the separator pore structure (e.g. the porosity and pore distribution) on the performance of LMBs is studied for both Li anodes and LiFePO4 composite cathodes. The results demonstrate that the use of separators with high porosities and homogeneous surface pore distributions can improve the performances (e.g. capacities and stabilities) of LMBs considerably, and also highlights the importance of proper separator/electrode interactions. The present approach constitutes a practical engineering strategy for the production of separators with nano/micro fibers and a promising route for the development of LMBs with improved safety and enhanced electrochemical performances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 55, p. 316-326
Keywords [en]
Cellulose, separator, sandwich structure, lithium metal battery, current distribution, three-electrode
National Category
Nano Technology Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364826DOI: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.11.005ISI: 000454636200029OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-364826DiVA, id: diva2:1260609
Funder
StandUpSwedish Energy AgencyAvailable from: 2018-11-04 Created: 2018-11-04 Last updated: 2019-06-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Cladophora Cellulose-based Separators for Lithium Batteries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cladophora Cellulose-based Separators for Lithium Batteries
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The development of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been focused on exploring and improving the electrode materials and electrolytes in the past decades. An indispensable component, the separator, is however not studied as extensively. In general, a separator has two functions, i.e. preventing the direct contact between the cathode and anode and providing the ionic transport pathways. Commercial separators for LIBs are usually made of polyolefin materials, which often have low thermal stabilities and poor electrolyte wettabilities.

In this thesis, a new type of material, i.e. Cladophora cellulose, is used to manufacture separators for LIBs and lithium-metal batteries (LMBs). The separators, made with Cladophora cellulose fibers via a straightforward paper making method, possess several advantages compared to conventional polyolefin separators regarding, e.g. ionic conductivity, thermal stability, electrolyte wettability and pore distribution, providing promising alternatives for battery separators.

Apart from studying the two basic functions mentioned above, two types of advanced separator functionalities have been studied, i.e. redox-activity and the attainment of a homogeneous current distribution, in conjunction with proposals for new separator designs.

Two types of redox-active separators have been devised for the first time in the separator field, based on the use of a redox-active conducting polymer, polypyrrole (PPy) and a natural polymer, polydopamine (PDA). Based on their redox-active potentials, the PPy-based redox-active separator was designed to contribute capacity to the cathode of a LIB, while the PDA-based redox-active separator was proposed to be used on the anode side.

It is known that a homogeneous current distribution is beneficial for the battery performance. Therefore, two new types of separators with homogenous pore distributions have been manufactured to study the influence of the pore distribution on the Li deposition/stripping behavior and composite cathode utilization in LMBs. With the knowledge obtained from the study, a stable, long lifetime paper-based LMB was designed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 61
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1754
Keywords
Cellulose, Separator, Paper making, Lithium-ion battery, Lithium-metal battery, Functionalization.
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368963 (URN)978-91-513-0529-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-02-08, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-01-16 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2019-01-21

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Pan, RuijunSun, RuiWang, ZhaohuiLindh, JonasEdström, KristinaStrömme, MariaNyholm, Leif

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