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Isomeric yield ratio measurements with JYFLTRAP: In quest of the angular momentum of the primary fragments
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, isomeric yield ratios of twenty nuclides produced in the fission of natU and 232Th by protons at 25-MeV and natU by high-energy neutrons were studied. The experiments were performed at the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility at the University of Jyväskylä. It is the first time that direct ion counting is used for the determination of the intensities of the states of interest, thus avoiding dependency on knowledge of nuclear decay schemes and properties. This was possible due to the superior resolution of a Penning trap which was utilized for this work. Two different techniques were employed, namely the sideband cooling technique and the phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance technique. With the former, a mass resolving power of m/δm = 105 can be routinely achieved, while the latter, which was recently implemented at JYFLTRAP, offers an increase in the mass resolving power by a factor of ten. In addition, isomeric yield ratios were also determined by means of γ-ray spectroscopy.

From a comparison of the same isomeric pair from two different reactions, a dependency on the fissioning system can be observed. This indicates an effect of the fission mode to the yield ratio. Moreover, the evolution of the odd-A isotopes of Cd and In in the mass range A = 119 - 127 exhibit two distinguishably different trends. The ratios for the isotopes of In decrease with increasing mass, while the ratios for the isotopes of Cd are almost constant until mass number A = 125, where an increase can be noticed.

The origins of the angular momentum in the fission fragments is one of the long-standing questions regarding the fission process. Surprisingly, fission fragments have been observed to carry a considerable amount of angular momentum, even from fissioning systems with very low (or even zero) angular momentum. So far, the angular momentum can only be inferred from other fission observables, such as the isomeric yield ratios. In this work, a methodology was developed in order to deduce the root-mean-square angular momentum (Jrms) of the primary fragments by employing the nuclear reaction code TALYS.

Lower values of Jrms for the more spherical nuclei, near the closed-shell neutron configuration at N = 82, and higher ones for fragments with odd proton number have been deduced, in agreement with other studies. Moreover, a correlation between the angular momentum of the primary fragments with the electric quadrupole moments of the products was observed for the isotopes of In. The data can be used to gain insight into scission configuration and as guide for models that propose mechanisms for the generation of the angular momentum. Furthermore, the observed correlation is an indication of the role that the repulsive Coulomb force, together with the shape of the nascent fragment, play in the generation of the fragments’ angular momentum.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. , p. 120
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1743
Keywords [en]
Nuclear physics, nuclear fission, angular momentum, fission fragments, isomeric yield ratios, fission products, scission, Penning trap.
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Nuclear Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364951ISBN: 978-91-513-0502-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-364951DiVA, id: diva2:1261303
Public defence
2018-12-13, 80127, Ångström, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-11-23 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2018-11-30
List of papers
1. First isomeric yield ratio measurements by direct ion counting and implications for the angular momentum of the primary fission fragments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>First isomeric yield ratio measurements by direct ion counting and implications for the angular momentum of the primary fission fragments
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2018 (English)In: Physical Review C: Covering Nuclear Physics, ISSN 2469-9985, E-ISSN 2469-9993, Vol. 98, no 2, article id 024612Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report the first experimental determination of independent isomeric yield ratios using direct ion counting with a Penning trap, which offered such a high resolution in mass that isomeric states could be separated. The measurements were performed at the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility at the University of Jyvaskyla. The isomer production ratios of Ge-81, Y-96,Y-97 Sn-128(,1)30, and Sb-129 in the 25-MeV proton-induced fission of U-na(t) and Th-232 were studied. Three isomeric pairs (Ge-81, Y-96, and Sb-129) were measured for the first time for the U-na(t)(p, f) reaction, while all the reported yield ratios for the Th-232(p, f) reaction were determined for the first time. The comparison of the experimentally determined isomeric yield ratios with data available in the literature shows a reasonable agreement, except for the case of Sn-130 for unspecified reasons. The obtained results were also compared with the GEF model, where good agreement can be noticed in most cases for both reactions. Serious discrepancies can only be observed for the cases of Y-96(,)97 for both reactions. Moreover, based on the isomeric yield ratios, the root-mean-square angular momenta (J(r)(ms)) of the fission fragments after scission were estimated using the TALYS code. The experimentally determined isomeric yield ratios, and consequently the deduced J(rms), for Sn-130 are significantly lower compared to Sn-128 for both fissioning systems. This can be attributed to the more spherical shape of the fragments that contribute to the formation of Sn-130, due to their proximity to the N = 82 shell closure. The values of J(rms) for Sb-129 are higher than Sn-128 for both reactions, despite the same neutron number of both nuclides (N = 78), indicating the odd-Z effect where fission fragments with odd-Z number tend to bear larger angular momentum than even-Z fragments. The isomer production ratio for the isotopes of Sn is more enhanced in the U-na(t)(p, f) reaction than in Th-232(p, f). The opposite is observed for Y-96 and Y-97. These discrepancies might be associated to different scission shapes of the fragments for the two fission reactions, indicating the impact that the different fission modes can have on the isomeric yield ratios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2018
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362692 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevC.98.024612 (DOI)000441464600003 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 605203Swedish Radiation Safety AuthoritySwedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, SKBAcademy of Finland, 275389 284516 312544 295207
Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
2. Isomeric fission yield ratios for odd-mass Cd & In isotopes using the Phase-Imaging Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance technique
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Isomeric fission yield ratios for odd-mass Cd & In isotopes using the Phase-Imaging Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance technique
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Natural Sciences Subatomic Physics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Nuclear Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364949 (URN)
Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2018-11-06
3. Measurements of isomeric yield ratios of fission products from proton- induced fission on natU and 232Th via direct ion counting
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurements of isomeric yield ratios of fission products from proton- induced fission on natU and 232Th via direct ion counting
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2017 (English)In: ND 2016: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NUCLEAR DATA FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY / [ed] Plompen, A.; Hambsch, FJ.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Mondelaers, W.; Heyse, J.; Kopecky, S.; Siegler, P.; Oberstedt, S., Les Ulis: EDP Sciences, 2017, Vol. 146, article id 04054Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Independent isomeric yield ratios (IYR) of 81Ge, 96Y, 97Y, 97Nb, 128Sn and 130Sn have been determined in the 25 MeV proton-induced fission of natU and 232Th. The measurements were performed at the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility at the University of Jyväskylä. A direct ion counting measurement of the isomeric fission yield ratios was accomplished for the first time, registering the fission products in less than a second after their production. In addition, the IYRs of natU were measured by means of γ-spectroscopy in order to verify the consistency of the recently upgraded experimental setup. From the obtained results, indications of a dependence of the production rate on the fissioning system can be noticed. These data were compared with data available in the literature, whenever possible. Using the TALYS code and the experimentally obtained IYRs, we also deduced the average angular momentum of the fission fragments after scission.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Les Ulis: EDP Sciences, 2017
Series
EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2100-014X
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319348 (URN)10.1051/epjconf/201714604054 (DOI)000426429500153 ()978-2-7598-9020-0 (ISBN)
Conference
ND 2016: International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, 11-16 september 2016, Bruges, Belgium
Funder
Swedish Radiation Safety AuthoritySwedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, SKB
Available from: 2017-04-03 Created: 2017-04-03 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
4. Production of Sn and Sb isotopes in high-energy neutron induced fission of natU
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of Sn and Sb isotopes in high-energy neutron induced fission of natU
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2018 (English)In: European Physical Journal A, ISSN 1434-6001, E-ISSN 1434-601X, Vol. 54, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The first systematic measurement of neutron-induced fission yields has been performed at the upgraded IGISOL-4 facility at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. The fission products from high-energy neutron-induced fission of U-nat were stopped in a gas cell filled with helium buffer gas, and were online separated with a dipole magnet. The isobars, with masses in the range A = 128-133, were transported to a tape-implantation station and identified using gamma-spectroscopy. We report here the relative cumulative isotopic yields of tin (Z = 50) and the relative independent isotopic yields of antimony (Z = 51). Isomeric yield ratios were also obtained for five nuclides. The yields of tin show a staggered behaviour around A = 131, not observed in the ENDF/B-VII. 1 evaluation. The yields of antimony also contradict the trend from the evaluation, but are in agreement with a calculation performed using the GEF model that shows the yield increasing with mass in the range A = 128-133.

National Category
Subatomic Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328572 (URN)10.1140/epja/i2018-12462-1 (DOI)000428637900002 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 605203Swedish Radiation Safety AuthoritySwedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, SKB
Available from: 2017-08-26 Created: 2017-08-26 Last updated: 2018-11-06Bibliographically approved
5. Extraction of angular momenta from isomeric yield ratios - assessment of TALYS as a fission fragment de-excitation code
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extraction of angular momenta from isomeric yield ratios - assessment of TALYS as a fission fragment de-excitation code
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Nuclear Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364950 (URN)
Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2018-11-06

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