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High spatial variability of gas transfer velocity in streams revealed by turbulence measurements
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8763-3139
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1351-9277
Umeå Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Umeå, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1157-5240
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2018 (English)In: INLAND WATERS, ISSN 2044-2041, E-ISSN 2044-205X, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 461-473Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Streams are major sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere, but current large-scale estimates are associated with high uncertainties because knowledge concerning the spatiotemporal control on stream emissions is limited. One of the largest uncertainties derives from the choice of gas transfer velocity (k600), which describes the physical efficiency of gas exchange across the water–atmosphere interface. This study therefore explored the variability in k600 and subsequent CO2 and CH4 emission rates within and across streams of different stream order (SO). We conducted, for the first time in streams, direct turbulence measurements using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) to determine the spatial variability in k600 across a variety of scales with a consistent methodology. The results show high spatial variability in k600 and corresponding CO2 and CH4 emissions at small spatial scales, both within stream reaches and across SO, especially during high discharge. The k600 was positively related to current velocity and Reynolds number. By contrast, no clear relationship was found between k600 and specific stream characteristics such as width and depth, which are parameters often used in empirical models of k600. Improved understanding of the small-scale variability in the physical properties along streams, especially during high discharge, is therefore an important step to reduce the uncertainty in existing gas transfer models and emissions for stream systems. The ADV method was a useful tool for revealing spatial variability in this work, but it needs further development. We recommend that future studies conduct measurements over shorter time periods (e.g., 10–15 min instead of 40 min) and at more sites across the reach of interest, and thereby derive more reliable mean-reach k600 as well as more information about controls on the spatial variability in k600

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 8, no 4, p. 461-473
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366055DOI: 10.1080/20442041.2018.1500228ISI: 000456214700006OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-366055DiVA, id: diva2:1263583
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council FormasEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 336642Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationAvailable from: 2018-11-15 Created: 2018-11-15 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved

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Kokic, JovanaSahlée, ErikSobek, SebastianWallin, Marcus

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