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Acaricidal properties of ylang-ylang oil and star anise oil against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9341-2052
Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp, Stockholm, Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden.
2018 (English)In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 209-220Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ylang-ylang oil (YYO) from Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson and star anise oil (SAO) from Illicium verum Hook.f. were tested at four concentrations 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mu l/cm(2). Mortality rates were obtained by counting dead nymphs at 30-min intervals during the first 5h after the start of exposure and then at 24, 48 and 72h. Mortality increased with increasing oil concentration and time of exposure. The two highest concentrations of YYO (0.2, 0.4 mu l/cm(2)) gave maximum lethal concentrations (LC) of 50 and 95% mortality after 4.5h exposure. Mortality of 95% was obtained after 24h with the next highest dose (0.1 mu l/cm(2)), whereas LC95 required 3days with the lowest YYO (0.05 mu l/cm(2)). The lethal effect time (LT) was correlated with the duration of exposure, with a significant effect at 0.4l YYO/cm(2) after 3h' (LT50=3.2h, LT95=4.3h). In contrast, only the highest concentration of SAO, 0.4 mu l SAO/cm(2), showed increasing mortality with time of exposure. This reached LT50 after 10h and LT95 after 24h. However, with the lower concentration (0.2 mu l/cm(2)) 50% mortality was reached after 24h and 100% at 72h. At to the lowest concentration of SAO (0.1 mu l/cm(2)), 67% mortality after 48h. The study indicates that YYO and SAO exhibit strong acaricidal properties against nymphs of I. ricinus and suggest that both YYO and SAO should be evaluated as potentially useful in the control of ticks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER , 2018. Vol. 76, no 2, p. 209-220
Keywords [en]
Acaricide, Cananga odorata, Illicium verum, Ixodes ricinus
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368454DOI: 10.1007/s10493-018-0299-yISI: 000446985800005PubMedID: 30302625OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-368454DiVA, id: diva2:1268256
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasSida - Swedish International Development Cooperation AgencyAvailable from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Plants as Sources of Natural and Effective Acaricides: Against Ixodes ricinus  (Acari: Ixodidae)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plants as Sources of Natural and Effective Acaricides: Against Ixodes ricinus  (Acari: Ixodidae)
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ticks and tick-borne diseases are major health hazards worldwide, with increasing numbers of cases of Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis reported yearly. Meanwhile, concerns about the environmental impact and safety of chemical acaricides are driving research into alternative control methods, such as plant-based acaricides. I evaluated eight plant species for their toxicity and repellency against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), the most important life cycle stage of tick-borne infection of humans.

Paper I examines the toxicity of the principal active component of the essential oil (EO) of lemon eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora), p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD). At 4 h of exposure time (ET), lethal PMD concentrations for 50% mortality (LC50) were 0.035–0.037 mg/cm² and for 95% mortality (LC95) were 0.095-0.097 mg/cm². For 0.1 mg/cm², lethal times for 50% mortality (LT50) were 2.1-2.8 h and for 95% mortality (LT95) were 3.9-4.2 h. An open filter assay gave the most consistent results of five methods tried. Paper II investigated the toxicity of ylang-ylang oil (YYO) and star anise oil (SAO), two naturally occurring, commercially available and inexpensive EOs. Oils were tested at 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4μl/cm², and dead nymphs counted at 30-min intervals up to 5h and then at 24, 48 and 72h. For YYO, an exposure of 4.4h resulted in LC95 for 0.4 μl/cm² and LC50 for 0.2μl/cm². The LT95 was 3h for 0.4 μl YYO/cm² and 4.3 h for 0.2 μl/cm². For SAO, the highest concentration (0.4 μl/cm²) only reached LC50 at 14 h and LT95 was 24h. Thus, YYO is a much stronger acaricide but SAO still showed significant toxicity.

Paper III investigated two plants of traditional medicinal or economic importance in Libya -Salvadora persica, (Miswak) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Libyan Rosemary). EOs were extracted from wild-collected leaves by steam distillation. Oils were tested on I. ricinus nymphs and their chemical composition analysed by GC-MS. R. officinalis EO at 0.5 and 1µl/cm² exhibited 20% and 100% mortality, respectively, after about 5h of ET. The LC50 and LC95 for 1µl/cm² R. officinalis oil were 0.7 and 0.95 µl/cm², respectively. S. persica oil at 1µl/cm² gave 95% repellency up to 1.5h, reducing to 50% at around 5.45 h, but no significant mortality even after 24h ET. GC-MS analysis showed both oils to be rich in the monoterpenes 1,8 cineol, α-pinene and β-pinene with values of 20.8%, 5.9% and 16.8 %, respectively, for S. persica and 24.07%, 13.03% and 2.45%, respectively, for R. officinalis.

Paper IV investigated EOs extracted from leaves of three additional native Libyan plants - Artemisia herba alba (white wormwood), Origanum majorana (oregano) and Juniperus phoenicea (Ar-aar). At 1µl/cm², the LT95 for both A. herba and J. phoenicea EO was 2h versus 72 h for O. majorana oil. GC-MS analyses gave plant specific combinations of the monoterenoids α-pinene, 1,8-cineol, camphor, linalool, terpinene-4-ol, α-terpinol, β-caryophyllene and β-thujanone. EO of A.herba alba contained most of the oxygenated monoterpenes, which all are all known to have insecticidal activity.

Taken together, all the EOs used in this study show a broad spectrum of effects against I. ricinus nymphs, making them good candidates for controlling ticks and, thereby, the diseases they carry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 62
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1797
Keywords
Acaricidal, Ixodes ricinus, Libyan plants, essential oils, Plant-derived acaricides.
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Systematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381142 (URN)978-91-513-0629-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-28, Lindahlsalen, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-05-02 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved

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Elmhalli, FawzeiaÖrberg, Jan

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