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Electrochemical rejuvenation of Tungsten oxide electrochromic thin films: Evidence from impedance spectroscopy
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8279-5163
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Karlstads Universitet.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9885-3161
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2018 (English)In: 13th International Meeting on Electrochromism, IME-13: Book of Abstracts, 2018, p. 11-, article id IN-3Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A major challenge for energy-efficient smart window technology is to ensure the durability of electrochromic (EC) devices capable of render a service life significantly higher than 20 years. The development of more durable EC materials would also make it possible to increase the transmittance contrast between bleached and colored states without the risk of limiting service life. Recently, it has been shown that degraded EC coatings can be restored to their initial state by electrochemical rejuvenation treatments.1,2 In addition, it was found that tungsten oxide EC films could gain vastly improved durability after extended electrochemical treatments at high applied potentials.3 In this paper we present an attempt to unravel the complex mechanisms behind high potential rejuvenation and durability-enhancing treatments. We study EC amorphous tungsten oxide, which is the most commonly used EC oxide. It is used in most commercial device designs, often in combination with a nickel oxide-based complementary EC layer.

Amorphous tungsten oxide thin films were deposited by sputtering onto conducting indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. Ion intercalation and diffusion in the films were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in the frequency range 10 mHz-10 kHz and for potentials between 2.0 and 3.3 V vs. Li/Li+, using the film as working electrode in a Li+ containing electrolyte. Measurements were carried out for as-deposited EC tungsten oxide films, degraded and rejuvenated films as well as durability-enhanced WOx films. The impedance data were in good agreement with a Randles-type equivalent circuit containing an anomalous diffusion element.4 In this study we focus on changes at the electrolyte/EC film and EC film/ITO interfaces during degradation and after different electrochemical treatments.

The most notable changes were associated with the high frequency and charge transfer resistances. The high frequency resistance increased significantly during degradation as well as extended rejuvenation treatments; a similar effect was observed in durability-enhanced WOx films. This might indicate compositional or chemical changes in the ITO backing or at the film/ITO interface. The charge transfer resistance associated with the electrolyte/film interface also increased after treatments, but in addition exhibited a strong potential dependence. The appearance of a second high-frequency process after rejuvenation is considered to be more interesting. Possible explanations include an additional adsorption step preceding ion intercalation into the EC film, or alternatively the appearance of a solid-electrolyte interphase layer of the type commonly observed in Li-ion batteries.

Ion diffusion coefficients were not significantly different for rejuvenated EC films as compared to the as-deposited ones. On the other hand degraded films exhibited a completely different impedance response, which could be interpreted as being due to parasitic chemical reactions in the system.

An increased understanding of ageing and rejuvenation processes will facilitate the search for more durable EC materials and preliminary results suggest that interfacial characteristics may influence durability. Eventually, improved EC coatings will be important for large-scale practical application of electrochromic materials, for example in smart windows.

 

 

References

[1]     R.-T. Wen, C.G. Granqvist, G.A. Niklasson, Nature Mater., 14, 996 (2015).

[2]     H.-Y. Qu, D. Primetzhofer, M.A. Arvizu, Z. Qiu, U. Cindemir, C.G. Granqvist, G.A. Niklasson, ACS Appl. Mater. Interf., 9, 42420 (2017).

[3]     M.A. Arvizu, H.-Y. Qu, G.A. Niklasson, C.G. Granqvist, Thin Solid Films, 653, 1 (2018).

[4]     S. Malmgren, S.V. Green, G.A. Niklasson, Electrochim. Acta, 247, 252 (2017).

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. p. 11-, article id IN-3
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368961OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-368961DiVA, id: diva2:1269410
Conference
13th International Meeting on Electrochromism, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan, Aug 27-31, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved

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Niklasson, GunnarAbatte, LeifRojas González, Edgar AlonsoArvizu, Miguel AQu, Hui-YingGranqvist, Claes Göran

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