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Characterization of the Fat Channel for Intra-Body Communication at R-Band Frequencies
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Umea Univ, Dept Comp Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden;Menoufia Univ, Dept Elect & Elect Commun, Menoufia 32952, Egypt.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1318-7519
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
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2018 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 9, article id 2752Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we investigate the use of fat tissue as a communication channel between in-body, implanted devices at R-band frequencies (1.7-2.6 GHz). The proposed fat channel is based on an anatomical model of the human body. We propose a novel probe that is optimized to efficiently radiate the R-band frequencies into the fat tissue. We use our probe to evaluate the path loss of the fat channel by studying the channel transmission coefficient over the R-band frequencies. We conduct extensive simulation studies and validate our results by experimentation on phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, with good agreement between simulations and experiments. We demonstrate a performance comparison between the fat channel and similar waveguide structures. Our characterization of the fat channel reveals propagation path loss of similar to 0.7 dB and similar to 1.9 dB per cm for phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, respectively. These results demonstrate that fat tissue can be used as a communication channel for high data rate intra-body networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 18, no 9, article id 2752
Keywords [en]
intra-body communication, path loss, microwave probes, channel characterization, fat tissue, ex-vivo, phantom, dielectric properties, topology optimization
National Category
Computer Sciences Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369000DOI: 10.3390/s18092752ISI: 000446940600011PubMedID: 30134629OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-369000DiVA, id: diva2:1270838
Funder
VINNOVA, 2015-04159VINNOVA, 2017-03568Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIT17-0020Swedish Research CouncilAvailable from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fat-IBC: A New Paradigm for Intra-body Communication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fat-IBC: A New Paradigm for Intra-body Communication
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the last two decades, a significant development in the field of medical technology occurred worldwide. This development is characterized by the materialization of various body implants and worn devices, that is devices attached to the body. These devices assist doctors and paramedical staff in effectively monitoring the patient’s health and helping increase patients’ average life expectancy. Furthermore, the various implants inside the human body serve different purposes according to the humans’ needs. As this situation became more prominent, the development of protocols and of reliable transmission media is becomes essential to improve the efficiency of inter-device communications. Positive prospects of the use of human tissue for intra-body communication were proven in recent studies. Fat tissues, for example, which also work as energy banks for human beings, can be potentially used in intra-body communications as transmission media. In this thesis, the fat (adipose) tissue’s function as an intra-body communication channel was investigated. Therefore, various simulations and experimentations were performed in order to characterize the reliability of the fat tissue in terms of communication, considering, for example, the effect that the variability in the thickness of adipose and muscular tissues could have on the communication performance, and the possible effect that the variability in the transmitted signal power could have on the data packet reception. Fat tissue displays superior performance in comparison to muscle tissue in the context of a low loss communication channel. For example, at 2.45 GHz, the path losses of ~0.7 dB/cm and ~1.9 dB/cm were observed for phantom and ex-vivo measurements, respectively. At a higher frequency of 5.8 GHz, the ex-vivo path loss was around 1.4 dB/cm. It was concluded from the results that the adipose tissue could function as a reliable medium supporting intra-body communication even under low power transmitted signals. Moreover, although the presence of thick blood vessels could degrade the signal strength, the results show that communication is possible even under the presence of perturbant tissues. Overall, the results of this thesis would provide a foundation in this area and assist researchers in developing innovative and solutions for intra-body communication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 116
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1863
Keywords
Fat-Intrabody Communication, Fat Tissue, Microwave, Propagation, Data Packet Reception, Ex-vivo, Phantom, Communication, Reliability, Implants
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393444 (URN)978-91-513-0770-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-27, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2019-11-06 Created: 2019-10-10 Last updated: 2019-11-06

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Asan, Noor BadariahVelander, JacobRedzwan, SyaifulNoreland, DanielVoigt, ThiemoAugustine, Robin

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