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Experience and Visual Expertise: A First Look at Eye Behaviour in Train Traffic Control
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. (Technology in Human Reasoning)ORCID-id: 0000-0002-5194-9430
(Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The present study investigated differences in visual expertise across levels of proficiency in train traffic control during a simulated scenario. Eye tracking metrics found to correlate with expertise reported in a meta-analysis on visual expertise were used. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the same results found in the meta-study could be obtained in the less controlled and dynamic work environment of train traffic control. Studies of this character are rare and also notoriously difficult to conduct due to a high level of potential noise. Results of the study indicates that eye behaviour seemed to correlate with years of experience also in a more naturalistic setting, but it did not correlate with expert ranking by instructors or a post-hoc measure of proactivity in task performance. A discussion is provided where a delineation of experience and expertise is made in light of differences between eye movement behaviour and cognitive aspects of problem-solving.

Nyckelord [en]
visual expertise, eye tracking, experience, train traffic control, rail human factors
Nationell ämneskategori
Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign)
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372696OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-372696DiVA, id: diva2:1276546
Forskningsfinansiär
TrafikverketTillgänglig från: 2019-01-08 Skapad: 2019-01-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-09
Ingår i avhandling
1. Knowledge elicitation as abstraction of purposive behaviour
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Knowledge elicitation as abstraction of purposive behaviour
2019 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Researchers use knowledge elicitation methods to document expert knowledge for the primary purpose of understanding cognitive processes and with this understanding, technical solutions to resolve human factors issues can be produced. This dissertation offers a novel perspective on knowledge elicitation as an abstraction process. Such a theoretical framework has emerged by consolidating the ecological approach of Brunswikian psychology with the ideas of tacit and personal knowledge of Polanyian epistemology. Traditionally, knowledge elicitation has been considered an extraction process in which knowledge can be readily transferred from one individual to another. Here, this traditional position is rejected in favour of Polanyi’s premise that much of the knowledge individuals possess is tacit in nature, which implies that it cannot be documented easily, expressed in explicit form or explained. In this dissertation, knowledge is characterised as a personal process of knowing, highlighting context as a subjective knowledge structure of personal experiences that is formulated implicitly and indirectly over time through a dynamic interaction with the environment. Therefore, tacit knowledge cannot be articulated or shared; however, learners can be inspired by observing other individuals' purposive (i.e., goal-directed) behaviours and thus shape their own tacit knowledge once they practise the observed skills and develop conceptual understanding through reasoning about the learning process. Knowledge elicitation thereby makes use of observations, questions, or more structured process tracing methods in environments familiar to the observed individuals to elicit purposive behaviour from them. Accordingly, functional descriptions can be produced in this process that further conceptual understanding of a particular domain. Knowledge elicitation procedures are a powerful set of methods for reaching such functional descriptions. Moreover, by understanding the resulting knowledge elicitation data as an abstraction derived from multiple collection points in the same environment, the focus shifts from purely subjective mental constructs to the impact of environmental constraints.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. s. 82
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1765
Nyckelord
knowledge elicitation, expertise, context, human factors
Nationell ämneskategori
Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign) Tillämpad psykologi
Forskningsämne
Datavetenskap med inriktning mot människa-datorinteraktion
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372725 (URN)978-91-513-0555-4 (ISBN)
Disputation
2019-03-08, Sal IX, Universitetshuset, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2019-02-15 Skapad: 2019-01-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-18

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