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Knowledge elicitation as abstraction of purposive behaviour
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion. (Technology in Human Reasoning)ORCID-id: 0000-0002-5194-9430
2019 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Researchers use knowledge elicitation methods to document expert knowledge for the primary purpose of understanding cognitive processes and with this understanding, technical solutions to resolve human factors issues can be produced. This dissertation offers a novel perspective on knowledge elicitation as an abstraction process. Such a theoretical framework has emerged by consolidating the ecological approach of Brunswikian psychology with the ideas of tacit and personal knowledge of Polanyian epistemology. Traditionally, knowledge elicitation has been considered an extraction process in which knowledge can be readily transferred from one individual to another. Here, this traditional position is rejected in favour of Polanyi’s premise that much of the knowledge individuals possess is tacit in nature, which implies that it cannot be documented easily, expressed in explicit form or explained. In this dissertation, knowledge is characterised as a personal process of knowing, highlighting context as a subjective knowledge structure of personal experiences that is formulated implicitly and indirectly over time through a dynamic interaction with the environment. Therefore, tacit knowledge cannot be articulated or shared; however, learners can be inspired by observing other individuals' purposive (i.e., goal-directed) behaviours and thus shape their own tacit knowledge once they practise the observed skills and develop conceptual understanding through reasoning about the learning process. Knowledge elicitation thereby makes use of observations, questions, or more structured process tracing methods in environments familiar to the observed individuals to elicit purposive behaviour from them. Accordingly, functional descriptions can be produced in this process that further conceptual understanding of a particular domain. Knowledge elicitation procedures are a powerful set of methods for reaching such functional descriptions. Moreover, by understanding the resulting knowledge elicitation data as an abstraction derived from multiple collection points in the same environment, the focus shifts from purely subjective mental constructs to the impact of environmental constraints.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. , s. 82
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1765
Nyckelord [en]
knowledge elicitation, expertise, context, human factors
Nationell ämneskategori
Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign) Tillämpad psykologi
Forskningsämne
Datavetenskap med inriktning mot människa-datorinteraktion
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372725ISBN: 978-91-513-0555-4 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-372725DiVA, id: diva2:1277077
Disputation
2019-03-08, Sal IX, Universitetshuset, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2019-02-15 Skapad: 2019-01-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-18
Delarbeten
1. Eliciting strategies in revolutionary design: exploring the hypothesis of predefined strategy categories
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Eliciting strategies in revolutionary design: exploring the hypothesis of predefined strategy categories
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 101-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Introducing automation in a human-machine system changes the tasks performed by human operators. It is difficult to analyse systems for which there are no experienced operators. This issue emerged within a project with the aim to develop a human–machine interface for a highly automated long-haul vehicle. To handle the problem, a formative strategies analysis method with promises to enable desktop analyses through predefined strategy categories was adopted. The method was used to investigate strategies for controlling the future long haul vehicle by conducting workshops with today's drivers. The method was shown to be a valuable asset in eliciting strategies for revolutionary design.

Nyckelord
Cognitive work analysis, strategies analysis, automation, revolutionary systems design, long haul trucks
Nationell ämneskategori
Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-292799 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2017.1278805 (DOI)000428728900006 ()
Projekt
MODAS
Forskningsfinansiär
VINNOVA, 2012-03678
Tillgänglig från: 2017-01-27 Skapad: 2016-05-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-09Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Collegial verbalisation — the value of an independent observer: an ecological approach
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Collegial verbalisation — the value of an independent observer: an ecological approach
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 474-494Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Nationell ämneskategori
Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign) Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-249009 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2015.1027322 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2015-04-07 Skapad: 2015-04-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-09Bibliografiskt granskad
3. On the importance of mental time frames: A case for the need of empirical methods to investigate adaptive expertise
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>On the importance of mental time frames: A case for the need of empirical methods to investigate adaptive expertise
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, ISSN 2211-3681, E-ISSN 2211-369X, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 51-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Nationell ämneskategori
Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352734 (URN)10.1016/j.jarmac.2017.12.004 (DOI)000429489400010 ()
Forskningsfinansiär
Trafikverket
Tillgänglig från: 2018-03-03 Skapad: 2018-06-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-09Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Experience and Visual Expertise: A First Look at Eye Behaviour in Train Traffic Control
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Experience and Visual Expertise: A First Look at Eye Behaviour in Train Traffic Control
(Engelska)Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The present study investigated differences in visual expertise across levels of proficiency in train traffic control during a simulated scenario. Eye tracking metrics found to correlate with expertise reported in a meta-analysis on visual expertise were used. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the same results found in the meta-study could be obtained in the less controlled and dynamic work environment of train traffic control. Studies of this character are rare and also notoriously difficult to conduct due to a high level of potential noise. Results of the study indicates that eye behaviour seemed to correlate with years of experience also in a more naturalistic setting, but it did not correlate with expert ranking by instructors or a post-hoc measure of proactivity in task performance. A discussion is provided where a delineation of experience and expertise is made in light of differences between eye movement behaviour and cognitive aspects of problem-solving.

Nyckelord
visual expertise, eye tracking, experience, train traffic control, rail human factors
Nationell ämneskategori
Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372696 (URN)
Forskningsfinansiär
Trafikverket
Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-08 Skapad: 2019-01-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-09

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