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Trans-crustal magma storage in contrasting tectonic settings
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Description
Abstract [en]

Magmatic plumbing systems comprise magma chambers, sheet intrusions, and conduits which link the Earth’s deep interior with the Earth’s surface. As such, they are the structural framework of magma transport and storage that is governed by complex physical and chemical processes in magma reservoirs and through the interaction of magma bodies with surrounding crustal rocks over timescales from hours to millions of years. These geological processes, in turn, play a vital role in controlling eruptive behaviour and the magnitude of associated volcanic eruptions that impact the environment as well as human society. Our understanding of the nature and location of magmatic processes and plumbing system architecture remains, however, fragmentary. This lack of knowledge can partly be attributed to limits regarding the spatial resolution of geophysical methods and partly to geochemical uncertainties and errors in associated models. Ongoing advances in analytical techniques increase spatial, temporal, and chemical resolution, hence enabling us to gather more detailed knowledge on the structure and dynamics of magmatic systems, especially for individual volcanoes, but also in respect to the long-term evolution of magmatic provinces and ultimately the Earth as a whole. This process-oriented thesis examines fossil and active magmatic plumbing systems in Iceland, Indonesia, Cameroon, and the Canary Islands by applying a combination of traditional and state-of-the-art petrological and geochemical methods, mineral(-melt) thermobarometric modelling, and isotopic analytical techniques. The results add valuable insights to the growing body of evidence for multi-tiered plumbing systems in a number of volcano-tectonic settings and underline the importance of shallow-level magma storage and its influence on magma evolution and hazardous volcanic eruptions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. , p. 45
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1818
Keywords [en]
magma plumbing systems, thermobarometry, oxygen isotope analysis, shallow arc storage systems
National Category
Geochemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383081ISBN: 978-91-513-0673-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-383081DiVA, id: diva2:1314529
Public defence
2019-09-06, Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-06-10 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-06-10
List of papers
1. Magma plumbing for the 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption, Iceland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magma plumbing for the 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption, Iceland
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2016 (English)In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 2953-2968Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption on Iceland was located within the Askja fissure swarm butwas accompanied by caldera subsidence in the Barðarbunga central volcano 45 km to the southwest. Geophysicalmonitoring of the eruption identified a seismic swarm that migrated from Barðarbunga to theHoluhraun eruption site over the course of two weeks. In order to better understand this lateral connectionbetween Barðarbunga and Holuhraun, we present mineral textures and compositions, mineral-meltequilibriumcalculations, whole rock and trace element data, and oxygen isotope ratios for selected Holuhraunsamples. The Holuhraun lavas are compositionally similar to recorded historical eruptions from theBarðarbunga volcanic system but are distinct from the historical eruption products of the nearby Askja system.Thermobarometry calculations indicate a polybaric magma plumbing system for the Holuhraun eruption,wherein clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at average depths of 17 km and 5 km,respectively. Crystal resorption textures and oxygen isotope variations imply that this multilevel plumbingsystem facilitated magma mixing and assimilation of low-d18O Icelandic crust prior to eruption. In conjunctionwith the existing geophysical evidence for lateral migration, our results support a model of initial verticalmagma ascent within the Barðarbunga plumbing system followed by lateral transport of aggregatedmagma batches within the upper crust to the Holuhraun eruption site.

National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304630 (URN)10.1002/2016GC006317 (DOI)000384808200001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-10-06 Created: 2016-10-06 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
2. Locating the depth of magma supply for volcanic eruptions, insights from Mt. Cameroon
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Locating the depth of magma supply for volcanic eruptions, insights from Mt. Cameroon
2016 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 33629Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mt. Cameroon is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa and poses a possible threat to about half a million people in the area, yet knowledge of the volcano’s underlying magma supply system is sparse. To characterize Mt. Cameroon’s magma plumbing system, we employed mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry on the products of the volcano’s two most recent eruptions of 1999 and 2000. Our results suggest pre-eruptive magma storage between 20 and 39 km beneath Mt. Cameroon, which corresponds to the Moho level and below. Additionally, the 1999 eruption products reveal several shallow magma pockets between 3 and 12 km depth, which are not detected in the 2000 lavas. This implies that small-volume magma batches actively migrate through the plumbing system during repose intervals. Evolving and migrating magma parcels potentially cause temporary unrest and short-lived explosive outbursts, and may be remobilized during major eruptions that are fed from sub-Moho magma reservoirs.

National Category
Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-304697 (URN)10.1038/srep33629 (DOI)000391998100001 ()27713494 (PubMedID)
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesSwedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-10-07 Created: 2016-10-07 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
3. Pyroxene standards for SIMS oxygen isotope analysis and their application to Merapi volcano, Sunda arc, Indonesia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pyroxene standards for SIMS oxygen isotope analysis and their application to Merapi volcano, Sunda arc, Indonesia
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2016 (English)In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 447, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measurement of oxygen isotope ratios in common silicate minerals such as olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, garnet, and quartz is increasingly performed by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). However, certain mineral groups exhibit solid solution series, and the large compositional spectrum of these mineral phases will result in matrix effects during SIMS analysis. These matrix effects must be corrected through repeated analysis of compositionally similar standards to ensure accurate results. In order to widen the current applicability of SIMS to solid solution mineral groups in common igneous rocks, we performed SIMS homogeneity tests on new augite (NRM-AG-1) and enstatite (NRM-EN-2) reference materials sourced from Stromboli, Italy and Webster, North Carolina, respectively. Aliquots of the standard minerals were analysed by laser fluorination (LF) to establish their δ18O values. Repeated SIMS measurements were then performed on randomly oriented fragments of the same pyroxene crystals, which yielded a range in δ18O less than ± 0.42 and ± 0.58‰ (2σ) for NRM-AG-1 and NRM-EN-2, respectively. Homogeneity tests verified that NRM-AG-1 and NRM-EN-2 do not show any crystallographic orientation bias and that they are sufficiently homogeneous on the 20 μm scale to be used as routine mineral standards for SIMS δ18O analysis. We subsequently tested our new standard materials on recently erupted pyroxene crystals from Merapi volcano, Indonesia. The δ18O values for Merapi pyroxene obtained by SIMS (n = 204) agree within error with the LF-derived δ18O values for Merapi pyroxene but differ from bulk mineral and whole-rock data obtained by conventional fluorination. The bulk samples are offset to higher δ18O values as a result of incorporation of mineral and glass inclusions that in part reflects crustal contamination processes. The Merapi pyroxene SIMS data, in turn, display a frequency peak at 5.8‰, which allows us to estimate the δ18O value of the primary mafic magma at Merapi to ~ 6.1‰ when assuming closed system differentiation.

Keywords
Pyroxene crystals; SIMS standardisation; δ18O analysis; Merapi volcano; Sub-Java primary δ18O
National Category
Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-309608 (URN)10.1016/j.chemgeo.2016.10.018 (DOI)000390632600001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT)
Available from: 2016-12-06 Created: 2016-12-06 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
4. Multi-level magma plumbing at Agung and Batur volcanoes increases risk of hazardous eruptions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-level magma plumbing at Agung and Batur volcanoes increases risk of hazardous eruptions
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 10547Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The island of Bali in Indonesia is home to two active stratovolcanoes, Agung and Batur, but relatively little is known of their underlying magma plumbing systems. Here we define magma storage depths and isotopic evolution of the 1963 and 1974 eruptions using mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry and oxygen and helium isotopes in mineral separates. Olivine crystallised from a primitive magma and has average delta O-18 values of 4.8%. Clinopyroxene records magma storage at the crust-mantle boundary, and displays mantle-like isotope values for Helium (8.62 R-A) and delta O-18 (5.0-5.8%). Plagioclase reveals crystallisation in upper crustal storage reservoirs and shows delta O-18 values of 5.5-6.4%. Our new thermobarometry and isotope data thus corroborate earlier seismic and InSAR studies that inferred upper crustal magma storage in the region. This type of multi-level plumbing architecture could drive replenishing magma to rapid volatile saturation, thus increasing the likelihood of explosive eruptions and the consequent hazard potential for the population of Bali.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018
National Category
Geochemistry Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-361269 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-28125-2 (DOI)000438343600057 ()30002471 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT), SA2015-6212
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
5. Forensic Probe of Bali’s Great Volcano
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forensic Probe of Bali’s Great Volcano
2019 (English)In: EOS: Transactions, ISSN 0096-3941, E-ISSN 2324-9250, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 26-30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2019
National Category
Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383075 (URN)10.1029/2019EO115211 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-05-09
6. Felsic magma storage in the core of an ocean island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Felsic magma storage in the core of an ocean island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands)
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383076 (URN)
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-05-09
7. Explosive ocean island volcanism explained by high magmatic water content in OIB magmas
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Explosive ocean island volcanism explained by high magmatic water content in OIB magmas
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383077 (URN)
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-05-09
8. Mechanical weakening due to hydrothermal alteration leads to failure at andesitic volcanoes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical weakening due to hydrothermal alteration leads to failure at andesitic volcanoes
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383078 (URN)
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-05-16
9. The stiff upper LIP: investigating the High Arctic Large Igneous Province
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The stiff upper LIP: investigating the High Arctic Large Igneous Province
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2016 (English)In: Geology Today, ISSN 0266-6979, E-ISSN 1365-2451, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 92-98Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [en]

The Canadian Arctic Islands expose a complex network of dykes and sills that belong to the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP), which intruded volatile-rich sedimentary rocks of the Sverdrup Basin (shale, limestone, sandstone and evaporite) some 130 to 120 million years ago. There is thus great potential in studying the HALIP to learn how volatile-rich sedimentary rocks respond to magmatic heating events during LIP emplacement. The HALIP remains, however, one of the least well known LIPs on the planet due to its remote location, short field season, and harsh climate. A Canadian–Swedish team of geologists set out in summer 2015 to further explore HALIP sills and their sedimentary host rocks, including the sampling of igneous and meta-sedimentary rocks for subsequent geochemical analysis, and high pressure-temperature petrological experiments to help define the actual processes and time-scales of magma–sediment interaction. The research results will advance our understanding of how climate-active volatiles such as CO2, SO2 and CH4 are mobilised during the magma–sediment interaction related to LIP events, a process which is hypothesised to have drastically affected Earth's carbon and sulphur cycles. In addition, assimilation of sulphate evaporites, for example, is anticipated to trigger sulphide immiscibility in the magma bodies and in so doing could promote the formation of Ni-PGE ore bodies. Here we document the joys and challenges of ‘frontier arctic fieldwork’ and discuss some of our initial observations from the High Arctic Large Igneous Province.

National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-293548 (URN)10.1111/gto.12138 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Polar Research SecretariatSwedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-05-13 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
10. Volcanic particles in agriculture and gardening
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Volcanic particles in agriculture and gardening
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2017 (English)In: Geology Today, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 148-154Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Volcanic pyroclasts of small size, such as lapilli and small pumice stones, are widely used in agriculture, gardening, and for pot plants as natural inorganic mulch. The technique of using pyroclasts to enhance topsoil stems from the eighteenth century, and specifically from the ad 1730–1736 eruption on Lanzarote. Critical observations on plant development during and after the eruption showed that the vegetation died when buried under a thick layer of lapilli, but grew vigorously when covered thinly. While the agriculture of Lanzarote was restricted to cereals before the eruption, it diversified to many kinds of fruit and vegetables afterwards, including the production of the famous Malvasía wines in the Canaries. The population of Lanzarote doubled in the years after the eruption, from about 5000 in 1730 to near 10 000 in 1768, predominantly as a result of the higher agricultural productivity. This outcome led to widespread use of lapilli and pumice fragments throughout the islands and eventually the rest of the globe. Lapilli and pumice provide vesicle space for moisture to be retained longer within the planting soil, which can create an environment for micro-bacteria to thrive in. Through this route, nutrients from volcanic matter are transported into the surrounding soil where they become available to plant life. The detailed processes that operate within the pyroclasts are less well understood, such as the breakdown of nutrients from the rock matrix and transport into the soil by biological action. Further studies promise significant potential to optimize future agricultural efforts, particularly in otherwise arid areas of the globe.

National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383079 (URN)10.1111/gto.12193 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-05-09
11. Sacred ground; the Maipés necropolis of north-west Gran Canaria
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sacred ground; the Maipés necropolis of north-west Gran Canaria
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2019 (English)In: Geology Today, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 55-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gran Canaria, like most of the Canary Islands, shows evidence for young basaltic volcanism in the form of cinder cones and valley-hugging lava flows. These landforms were of no particular use to the aboriginal population, nor to the subsequent Spanish settlers, and young lava flows and lava fields are still referred to as ‘malpaís’ (badlands) in the Canary Islands. In north-west Gran Canaria, one such lava flow fills the bottom of a steep-sided valley, which reaches the sea at the present day village of Agaete. The lava flow erupted c. 3030 ± 90 yr bp and displays a total length of ∌ 11 km. At its distal end, just outside Agaete, it hosts one of Europe’s largest and most important pre-historic burial sites constructed of volcanic rock: the Maipés necropolis. Over 700 pre-historic tombs (or tumuli) constructed from the aa-type clinker materials have been identified on top of the valley-filling lava flow. The up to soccer-ball sized vesicular clinker fragments are sufficiently low in density to provide abundant, workable basalt blocks for the construction of the tumuli, allowing the pre-hispanic aboriginal population to create a large and magnificent ‘sacred ground’ in an otherwise barren landscape.

National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383080 (URN)10.1111/gto.12262 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-05-09

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34567897 of 9
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