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Biochemical biomarkers associated with peripheral artery disease contribute to prediction of outcome during long-term follow up after myocardial infarction
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. (Kardiologi)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5726-1226
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5795-0061
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Abstract

Background: Few studies have investigated biomarkers and their association to cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1(TNFR-1), tumor necrosis factor receptor 2(TNFR-2) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) are inflammatory biomarkers found to predict PAD.

Aim:  To evaluate whether pathological ankle brachial index (ABI) and the group of biomarkers TNFR-1, TNFR-2 and GDF-15 analyzed early after a MI, were associated with all-cause mortality and the risk of new cardiovascular events during long-term follow up.

Method: 388 patients with MI included in the REBUS (Relevance of Biomarkers for future risk of Thromboembolic Events in Unselected Post-myocardial Infarction Patients) study were examined with ABI to diagnose PAD (defined as an ABI score <0.9 or > 1.4 on at least one side). TNFR-1, -2 and GDF-15 was measured using the Proseek Multiplex CVD III ⁹⁶˟⁹⁶ proximity extension assay (www.olink.com/products/cvd-i and iii-panel).  The composite results for these 3 biomarkers were dichotomized into two groups (i.e high and low values) We evaluated pathological ABI and the group with higher biomarkers values with the association to long-term outcome, and if the group of biomarkers for inflammation could further improve prediction of recurrence of cardiovascular events (mortality, new acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the composite of mortality, new ACS, stroke/TIA and PAD) after an MI.  

Results:  The mean follow-up time was 5.5 years. After adjustment for established CV risk factors, pathological ABI was associated with a higher risk of new ACS, HR 1.97, 95 % CI 1.12-3.49, p = 0.019, and the composite endpoint; HR 1.97, 95 % CI 1.29-3.01, p=0.002, compared to patients with normal ABI. The group with the higher biomarker value was associated with a higher risk for all-cause mortality; HR 1.84, 95 % CI 1.00-3.38, p=0.049 and the composite endpoint; HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.03-2.53, p=0.035. In the ROC analyses pathological ABI added to established CV risk factors improved the AUC for a new ACS from 0.753 (95% C.I. 0.684-0.822, p<0.001) to 0.763 (95% C.I. 0.697-0.830, p<0.001). When the group with higher biomarker values was added to  established CV risk factors  AUC for all-cause mortality increased from 0.789 (95% C-I. 0.729-0.849, p<0.001) to 0.805 (95% C.I. 0.746-0.863, p<0.001).

Conclusion: Despite a high proportion of revascularization and guideline-recommended secondary medical treatment, both pathological ABI and the group with higher values of the inflammatory biomarkers (TNFR-1, TNFR-2, GDF-15) predictive for PAD were associated with the risk of new CV events and mortality in patients with a recent MI. The group of inflammatory biomarkers provide additional information to established risk factors in prediction of CV outcome in this cohort with recent MI.

Keywords [en]
coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndrome, peripheral artery disase, biochemial biomarkers, myocardial inafarction, long-term follow up
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-395819OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-395819DiVA, id: diva2:1365372
Available from: 2019-10-24 Created: 2019-10-24 Last updated: 2019-10-24
In thesis
1. Importance of peripheral arterial disease as a risk marker in patients with myocardial infarction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Importance of peripheral arterial disease as a risk marker in patients with myocardial infarction
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this thesis was to describe the true prevalence of widespread arterial disease in a cohort with patients with a recent myocardial infarction (MI) to find valuable clinical methods to detect these patients. Our aim was also to investigate biomarker relationships with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and the importance of PAD in patients’ long-term outcomes.

We studied patients with a recent MI in a prospective observational study, the REBUS ((Relevance of Biomarkers for Future Risk of Thromboembolic Events in Unselected Post-myocardial Infarction Patients) trial. A total of 421 patients were included in the study, 390 of whom had their ankle-brachial index (ABI) measured and a mean-time follow up of 5.5 years. Atherosclerotic changes were assessed in three arterial beds by coronary angiography, measuring the ABI and carotid ultrasound. Ninety-two biochemical biomarkers were assessed at baseline by a proximity extension assay (PEA) chip. 263 out of 421 filled in a self-administered Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ). Polyvascular (PvD) disease was defined as pathological findings in all three arterial beds.

We found that PAD and PvD are underdiagnosed in patients who suffered a recent MI. We also found the ABI to be a strong and useful method to identify patients with PAD as well as patients with more widespread arterial disease, such as PvD (paper I).

The results of the scoring system, the WIQ, showed it is useful for finding patients with PAD and PvD, even when completed soon after an acute MI event (paper II).

We also found that biochemical biomarkers associated with the inflammatory pathway – tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR-1), tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR-2) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) – were able to predict pathological ABI, i.e. PAD, in these MI patients. These results could also be validated in another observational study and cohort of MI patients, the VaMIS cohort (paper III). Pathological ABI was also found to be a strong predictor for cardiovascular events of all-cause mortality, new ACS, and a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, new ACS, new stroke/TIA or new PAD event. When evaluating the three inflammatory biomarkers as a surrogate marker for ABI, they showed a similar association with all-cause death and the composite endpoint (paper IV).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 73
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1612
Keywords
Coronary heart disease, Peripheral artery disease, Polyvascular disease, Inflammatory biomarkers, TNFR-1, TNFR-2, GDF-15, Cardiovascular events.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Cardiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-395821 (URN)978-91-513-0802-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-12-13, Enghoffsalen, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-11-20 Created: 2019-10-24 Last updated: 2019-11-20

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Jönelid, BirgittaLindahl, BertilJohnston, NinaLindhagen, LarsOldgren, JonasSiegbahn, AgnetaChristersson, Christina

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