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Amplitude modulation of wind turbine sound in cold climates
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1627-9096
Kungliga Tekniska Hogskolan, Marcus Wallenberg Lab, Tekn Ringen 8, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8383-944x
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7656-1881
2020 (English)In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 158, article id UNSP 107024Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Amplitude modulation is assumed to be a major annoyance factor of wind turbine sound. However, studies on the generation of amplitude modulation and the impact of atmospheric conditions on amplitude modulation are limited, especially in cold climates. Long-term acoustic and meteorological measurements in the vicinity of a wind farm in northern Sweden show a dependence of the occurrence of amplitude modulation on wind direction and atmospheric stability. The occurrence of amplitude modulation is highest for crosswinds from southwest, compared with the other wind directions. Moreover, the occurrence of amplitude modulation is clearly linked to atmospheric stability and highest for very stable conditions. The impact of atmospheric stability is supported by analyses of wind shear, the wind speed gradient close to the surface and the bulk Richardson number. Amplitude modulation is more likely during winter than during summer and more likely during night and early morning than during noon and early afternoon. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD , 2020. Vol. 158, article id UNSP 107024
Keywords [en]
Amplitude modulation, Atmospheric acoustics, Wind turbine sound
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-400012DOI: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2019.107024ISI: 000499735400008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-400012DiVA, id: diva2:1380296
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40969-1Available from: 2019-12-18 Created: 2019-12-18 Last updated: 2019-12-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Wind Turbine Sound in Cold Climates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wind Turbine Sound in Cold Climates
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The increase in the number of wind turbines (WTs) in populated areas in cold climates increases the number of people potentially being affected by WT sound. Outdoor sound propagation is strongly dependent on meteorological conditions, however, limitations in the knowledge exist regarding the implications of meteorological conditions in cold climates. Long-term acoustic and meteorological measurements were conducted in the vicinity of two wind farms in northern Sweden, to investigate the effect of snow and low-level wind maxima on WT sound, to analyse the occurrence of amplitude modulation and to evaluate selection methods for WT sound measurements. Different selection methodologies were applied to the acoustical data. The simplest method only includes a minimum rotational frequency of the WTs, while the most comprehensive method additionally includes criteria based on spectral resemblance, temporal variation of the sound level, amplitude modulation and wind speed. The effect of snow on WT sound depends on the snow quality. Snow on trees lowers the sound level by ca. 2 dBA. Low-level wind maxima below hub height reduce the sound level near the surface. Since this effect is increasing with increasing strength of the low-level wind maximum, the WT sound is assumed to be partly trapped above the low-level wind maximum. Amplitude modulation was shown to be dependent on atmospheric stability and was most common for very stable conditions. Moreover, a clear difference between the occurrences of amplitude modulation for the two crosswind sectors was observed. The choice of selection method needs to be taken into account when comparing different studies since it affects the results and conclusions. The studies emphasise to include the effects of individual meteorological conditions of a site in the formulation of guidelines on WT sound.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 47
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1784
Keywords
atmospheric acoustics, wind turbine sound, outdoor sound propagation, cold climates
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379554 (URN)978-91-513-0601-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-13, Axel Hamberg salen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-03-18 Last updated: 2019-12-18

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Conrady, KristinaSjöblom, AnnaRutgersson, Anna

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