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Chemical composition of the medicinal mushroom Kusaghiporia usambarensis
Systematisk biologi, Systematic Biology. (Tibell)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3442-9262
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
University of Dar es Salaam, Department of molecular Biology and Biotechnology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3105-8374
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4143-9856
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The mushroom Kusaghiporia usambarensis was recently described as a new species and the single member of a new genus. It appears endemic to Tanzania. The mushroom forms large, conspicuous fruiting bodies with an unusually high radial growth rate and an observed ability to attract insects. The mushroom is used by the local community both for food and in traditional medicine. In order to gain insight into both basic biology and the traditional use of this mushroom, we here report the first analyses of its chemical composition. A dichloromethane extract was prepared from the dried fruiting body and analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. This extract of medium polar chemical constituents of Kusaghiporia usambarensis showed a high content of phenolic compounds and esters. The main elements were phenols, which account for ~22%, and esters ~20 %). These two groups of compounds may explain formerly reported antioxidant activity and traditional medicinal use of the mushroom. Revealing the chemistry also shed light on K. usambarensi as a sought-after delicacy: presence of 1-octen-3-one, octanal, 3-octen-2-one contribute to its fruity, cheesy and chicken flavour.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-405386OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-405386DiVA, id: diva2:1399539
Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2020-02-28
In thesis
1. Polyporoid fungi of Tanzania: Taxonomy, transcriptomics and biochemical analyses of Kusaghiporia usambarensis and Piptoporellus baudonii
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polyporoid fungi of Tanzania: Taxonomy, transcriptomics and biochemical analyses of Kusaghiporia usambarensis and Piptoporellus baudonii
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Polyporoid fungi refers to basidiomycetes with fruiting bodies with the hymenium located to the inner surfaces of pores or narrow tubes. The majority of polyporoids belongs to Polyporales. Most Polyporales are saprobes, but some are plant pathogens. The overall aim of this thesis was to study the taxonomy, systematics and chemistry of the two species Kusaghiporia usambarensis (saprobic) and Piptoporellus baudonii (a plant pathogen) collected from Tanzania, using morphological and molecular approaches, combined with transcriptomics and pharmacognostic investigations.

The main contribution of this thesis includes the description a new genus with the new species K. usambarensis from the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania; investigation of the chemical composition of volatile compounds from this medicinal mushroom; isolation and structure determination of a novel and most abundant peptide in K. usambarensis, and further to elucidate the phylogenetic position of Piptoporellus baudonii (formerly known as Laetiporus baudonii) by using a four molecular markers dataset.

Paper I was conducted applying a classical taxonomic approach, including both morphological and phylogenetic analyses, to describe a new genus and species K. usambarensis. Paper II, investigated volatiles and volatile derivatives in dichloromethane extracts of K. usambarensis analysed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The main elements were phenols, and esters, compounds that may explain the formerly reported antioxidant activity and traditional medicinal use of the mushroom. In paper III, screening of peptides in K. usambarensis revealed a novel cysteine-rich peptide, highly expressed at gene level and the most abundant compound in the fruiting body. Combined LC-MS and transcriptome analyses were used to determine the peptide sequence, and subsequently NMR spectroscopy to determine the 3D structure of the novel peptide, kusaghitide. In paper IV molecular techniques were used to elucidate the phylogenetic position of the parasitic Laetiporus baudonii. Phylogenetic analyses of combined 5.8S, nrLSU, nrSSU, and TEF1 gene sequences placed L. baudonii in the genus Piptoporellus, hence the new combination Piptoporellus baudonii was proposed. This thesis has contributed to build capacity in the fields of mycology, systematics and pharmacognosy in order to reinforce ecological knowledge and ethnopharmaceutical research for future drug discovery in Tanzania and Africa at large.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2020. p. 56
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1908
Keywords
Systematics, Laetiporaceae, pharmacognosy, cysteine-rich peptide, baudonii
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Systematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-405548 (URN)978-91-513-0881-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-04-17, Ekmansalen, Evolutionsbiologiskt centrum (EBC), Norbyvägen 14-18, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2020-03-26 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2020-03-26

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