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Towards a Typology of Intentionally Inaccurate Representations of Reality in Media Content
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4159-6739
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6673-7935
2020 (English)In: Human-Centric Computing in a Data-Driven Society: 14th IFIP TC 9 International Conference on Human Choice and Computers, HCC14 2020, Tokyo, Japan, September 9–11, 2020, Proceedings / [ed] D. Kreps et al, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 291-304Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we take a look at three concepts frequently discussed in relation to the spread of misinformation and propaganda online; fake news, deepfakes and cheapfakes. We have mainly two problems with how these three phenomena are conceptualized. First of all, while they are often discussed in relation to each other, it is often not clear what these concepts are examples of. It is sometimes argued that all of them are examples of misleading content online. This is quite a one-sided picture, as it excludes the vast amount of content online, namely when these techniques are used for memes, satire and parody, which is part of the foundation of today’s online culture. Second of all, because of this conceptual confusion, much research and practice is focusing on how to prevent and detect audiovisual media content that has been tampered with, either manually or through the use of AI. This has recently led to a ban on deepfaked content on Facebook. However, we argue that this does not address problems related to the spread of misinformation. Instead of targeting the source of the problem, such initiatives merely target one of its symptoms. The main contribution of this paper is a typology of what we term Intentionally Inaccurate Representations of Reality (IIRR) in media content. In contrast to deepfakes, cheapfakes and fake news – terms with mainly negative connotations – this term emphasizes both sides; the creative and fun, and the malicious use of AI and non-AI powered editing techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2020. p. 291-304
Series
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology (IFIPAICT), ISSN 1868-4238, E-ISSN 1868-422X ; 590
Keywords [en]
Fake news, Deepfakes, Cheapfakes, Propoganda, Disinformation, Misinformation, Typology
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-439052DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-62803-1_23ISBN: 978-3-030-62802-4 (print)ISBN: 978-3-030-62805-5 (print)ISBN: 978-3-030-62803-1 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-439052DiVA, id: diva2:1540627
Conference
14th IFIP TC 9 International Conference on Human Choice and Computers, HCC14 2020, Tokyo, Japan, September 9-11, 2020
Available from: 2021-03-29 Created: 2021-03-29 Last updated: 2021-04-20Bibliographically approved

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Davis, Matthew J.Fors, Per

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