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An Improved Procedure for N- to C-Directed (Inverse) Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för organisk farmaceutisk kemi.
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för organisk farmaceutisk kemi.
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för organisk farmaceutisk kemi.
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för organisk farmaceutisk kemi.
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2000 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of combinatorial chemistry, ISSN 1520-4766, E-ISSN 1520-4774, Vol. 2, nr 5, s. 496-507Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

A method for solid-phase peptide synthesis in the N- to C-direction that delivers good coupling yields and a low degree of epimerization is reported. The optimized method involves the coupling, without preactivation, of the resin-bound C-terminal amino acid with excess amounts of amino acid tri-tert-butoxysilyl (Sil) esters, using HATU as coupling reagent and 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine (TMP, collidine) as a base. For the amino acids investigated, the degree of epimerization was typically 5%, except for Ser(t-Bu) which was more easily epimerized (ca. 20%). Five tripeptides (AA(1)-AA(2)-AA(3)) with different properties were used as representative model peptides in the development of the synthetic method: Asp-Leu-Glu, Leu-Ala-Phe, Glu-Asp-Val, Asp-Ser-Ile, and Asp-D-Glu-Leu. The study used different combinations of HATU and TBTU as activating agents, N, N-diisopropylethylamine (DIEA) and TMP as bases, DMF and dichloromethane as solvents, and cupric chloride as an epimerization suppressant. The epimerization of AA(2) in the coupling of AA(3) was further reduced in the presence of cupric chloride. However, the use of this reagent also resulted in a decrease in loading onto the resin and significant cleavage between AA(1) and AA(2). Experiments indicated that the observed suppressing effect of cupric chloride on epimerization in the present system merely seemed to be a result of a base-induced cleavage of the oxazolone system, the key intermediate in the epimerization process. Consequently, the cleavages were most pronounced in slow couplings. An improved synthesis of fully characterized amino acid tri-tert-butoxysilyl (Sil) ester hydrochloride building blocks is presented. The amino acid Sil esters were found to be stable as hydrochlorides but not as free bases. Although only a few peptides have been used in this study, we believe that the facile procedure devised herein should provide an attractive alternative for the solid-phase synthesis of short (six residues or less) C-terminally modified peptides, e.g., in library format.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2000. Vol. 2, nr 5, s. 496-507
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicin och hälsovetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-90139DOI: 10.1021/cc000022hPubMedID: 11029175OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-90139DiVA, id: diva2:162370
Tillgänglig från: 2003-02-26 Skapad: 2003-02-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-14Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Design and Synthesis of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Protease Inhibitors
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Design and Synthesis of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Protease Inhibitors
2003 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide as well as the primary indication for liver transplantation. More than 3% of the world’s population is chronically infected with HCV and there is an urgent need for effective therapy. NS3 protease, a viral enzyme required for propagation of HCV in humans, is a promising target for drug development in this area. This thesis addresses the design, synthesis and biochemical evaluation of new HCV NS3 protease inhibitors.

The main objective of the thesis was the synthesis of peptide-based protease inhibitors of the bifunctional full-length NS3 enzyme (protease-helicase/NTPase). Three types of inhibitors were synthesized: i) classical serine protease inhibitors with electrophilic C-terminals, ii) product-based inhibitors with a C-terminal carboxylate group, and iii) product-based inhibitors with C-terminal carboxylic acid bioisosteres.

The developmental work included the establishment of an improved procedure for solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) in the N-to-C direction, in contrast to the C-to-N direction of classical SPPS methods. This inverse method facilitated synthesis of the peptides modified at the C-terminal.

The potency of more than seventy newly synthesized inhibitors was assessed in an in vitro assay using the native form of the protease, i.e. the full-length NS3. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) data achieved was different from SAR data obtained from the more widely used truncated NS3 (protease domain) assay, indicating that the helicase domain of NS3 participates in the binding of the inhibitors.

The most potent inhibitors identified in this study contained a C-terminal phenyl acyl sulfonamide moiety, i.e. a carboxylic acid bioisostere. It is concluded that the acyl sulfonamide moiety is a promising P1-P1´ spanning entity, which may have potential for use in the development of more drug-like HCV protease inhibitors.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2003. s. 79
Serie
Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Pharmacy, ISSN 0282-7484 ; 282
Nyckelord
Pharmaceutical chemistry, Farmaceutisk kemi
Nationell ämneskategori
Läkemedelskemi
Forskningsämne
Läkemedelskemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-3311 (URN)91-554-5538-7 (ISBN)
Disputation
2003-03-21, Lecturehall B41, BMC, Uppsala, 10:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Tillgänglig från: 2003-02-26 Skapad: 2003-02-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad

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