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Environmental Effects from Wave Power: Artificial Reefs and Incidental No-take Zones
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electricity. (Wave power group)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7675-3998
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Marine renewable technologies have rapidly been developing over the past decade. Wave power is one of the renewable sources and has the potential securing the renewable electricity production. However, all renewable energy extraction affects the environment in some way and for a true sustainable energy generation, environmental effects need to be investigated. Beside uncertain effects from the technologies to habitats or organisms e.g., collision risks, electromagnetic fields, noise, past studies have also shown benefits on diversity, size and abundance of species around marine renewable technologies as a result of habitat creation by the devices and fishery exclusion in designated offshore park areas.

This thesis deals with environmental effects from heaving point-absorber wave energy converters developed at Uppsala University and deployed on the Swedish west coast at the Lysekil research site and the Sotenäs Project wave power park over a period of four years. The scope was the investigation of artificial reef effects from wave power foundations on local mobile, mega and macrofauna during visual inspections using scuba diving on the first hand. On the second hand, the effects from the incidental no-take zone on decapods and two sea pen species were investigated applying cage fishing and ROV seabed surveys. A third focus was on environmental monitoring around MRE sites and monitoring of MRE installations, both in an experimental and theoretical approach.

In the Lysekil research site, the results highlight that abundance and diversity can be enhanced locally around wave power foundations compared to control areas. The abundance and size of decapods were not significantly different within the wave power park and up to a distance of 360 m outside of it. In the Sotenäs Project wave power park a positive effect on Nephrops norvegicus size and burrow density but not on abundance was found on a scale of up to 1230 m. Sea pen abundance was enhanced inside the wave power park. However, interannual variation was strong.

In conclusion, wave power foundations can influence abundance and diversity of marine organisms around foundations on a very local scale (meters). With the methods in this study, the investigations did not reveal strong effects on the abundance and size of decapods on a larger scale up to 1230 m away from foundations as a result of the no-take zone. However, a focus should be put on a further development of environmental monitoring routines around MRE sites and their evaluation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2022. , p. 62
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 2115
Keywords [en]
Marine renewable energy, Wave power, Environmental monitoring, Artificial reef, No-take zone, Decapods, Nephrops norvegicus, ROV, Cage fishing
National Category
Ecology Natural Sciences Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-466694ISBN: 978-91-513-1403-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-466694DiVA, id: diva2:1634431
Public defence
2022-03-24, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-03-01 Created: 2022-02-02 Last updated: 2022-03-15
List of papers
1. Colonisation of wave power foundations by mobile mega- and macrofauna - a 12 year study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Colonisation of wave power foundations by mobile mega- and macrofauna - a 12 year study
2020 (English)In: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 161, article id 105053Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental impacts from wave energy generators on the local mobile mega- and macrofauna community have been investigated in the Lysekil project by Uppsala University. Offshore renewable energy installations provide hard, artificial substrates, and as such, they could act as artificial reefs. Foundations with manufactured holes served as complex habitats and foundations without served as non-complex. In this long-term study, SCUBA surveys of mobile fauna in the years 2007, 2008 and 2016-2019 were analyzed. The results show a distinct reef effect on the foundations with significant greater species richness, total number of individuals, greater values of the Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index, and greater abundance of specific reef fauna. Complex foundations accommodated a greater abundance of brown crabs than non-complex foundations, other taxa did not show differences between the two foundation types. A successional increase of species richness, numbers of individuals and Shannon-Wiener biodiversity could be revealed from the first to the second survey period. Inter-annual variation was visible throughout all taxa and years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2020
Keywords
Offshore renewable energy, Artificial reefs, Wave power, Reef effect, Habitat complexity, Long-term study, Cancer pagurus, Environmental effects, Community composition, Biodiversity
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-424486 (URN)10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105053 (DOI)000579495700016 ()32871461 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40857-1StandUp
Available from: 2020-11-09 Created: 2020-11-09 Last updated: 2022-02-02Bibliographically approved
2. Effects of a Wave Power Park with No-Take Zone on Decapod Abundance and Size
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a Wave Power Park with No-Take Zone on Decapod Abundance and Size
2021 (English)In: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, E-ISSN 2077-1312, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 864-, article id 864Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Past studies have revealed higher levels of biodiversity, total abundance, and size ofindividuals around offshore installations of renewable energy. This study investigated the effectsof Lysekil wave power park (area 0.5 km2) on the abundance and carapace size of decapods at theSwedish west coast. For that purpose, decapods were caught with cages during four consecutivesummers. Two types of cages were applied to catch a wide range of decapod species and sizes. Theabundance and size of decapods were not significantly different within the wave power park and upto a distance of 360 m outside of it. The catch rate, i.e., number of decapods caught in 24 h, was notsignificantly different among sampling locations but revealed inter-annual variation for both cagetypes. The results suggest a limited role of the incidental no-take zone of the small Lysekil wavepower park on the abundance and size of local decapods. However, neither were negative impacts,such as decreasing abundances or smaller carapace sizes, discovered. As an increase in the numberof marine renewable energy production sites is foreseen, a scaled-up and larger study addressingMPA networks and other environmental interactions should be considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPIMDPI AG, 2021
Keywords
marine renewable energy, wave energy, marine protected area (MPA), no-take zone, co-location, environmental effects, mid-term study
National Category
Biological Sciences Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-450186 (URN)10.3390/jmse9080864 (DOI)000690541200001 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40857-1
Available from: 2021-08-13 Created: 2021-08-13 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
3. Effects from wave power generators on the distribution of two sea pen species on the Swedish west coast
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects from wave power generators on the distribution of two sea pen species on the Swedish west coast
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Global electricity demand doubled between 1990 and 2016 and several countries are planning for a significant increase in offshore renewable energies along the European coast. In 2015 renewable energy accounted for more than half of the new generating capacity installed in the power sector worldwide. These activities bring up an increased interest about possible environmental impacts or additional values of the new technologies. The Wave Energy Park "Sotenäs Project" is located on the west coast of Sweden, 120 km north of Gothenburg, and was the site for environmental impact studies from wave energy generators on two sea pen species, Virgularia mirabilis (Müller, 1776) and Pennatula phosphorea (Linnaeus, 1758). Sea pens and burrowing mega fauna communities are designated threatened or declining habitats or species by the OSPAR convention. Investigations of those taxa in relation to marine renewable energies are thereby both interesting and important. A ROV aided seabed survey in the wave power park and respective control areas were primarily conducted to assess Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758) abundance and video footages were used to compare the abundance of the two sea pen species within the same area. Preliminary results show a significant difference between the transects and years. However, a clear increased number of individuals inside the wave power park for the two sea pen species compared to the control transects were not identified. Long-term observations and complementary studies are necessary in order to draw firm conclusions.

Series
Proceedings of the 13th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, ISSN 2309-1983 ; 1240-1
Keywords
Environmental Studies, Marine Renewable Energy, Sea Pens, Pennatula phosphorea, Virgularia mirabilis, ROV Survey, Wave power
National Category
Environmental Sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-394315 (URN)
Conference
13th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, 1–6 September 2019, Napoli, Italy
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2019-10-07 Created: 2019-10-07 Last updated: 2022-02-02Bibliographically approved
4. Effects of distance from a wave power park with no-take zone on Nephrops norvegicus abundance, size and burrow density
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of distance from a wave power park with no-take zone on Nephrops norvegicus abundance, size and burrow density
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The introduction of marine renewable energy parks often comes along with restrictions, such as prohibition of marine traffic or fishing. The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, is an ecologically relevant and economically important species, which potentially could benefit from such restrictions. This study investigated the effects of the no-take zone of a wave power park (0.8 km2) after its establishment (2014−2015), on the abundance, size, and burrow density of N. norvegicus on the west coast of Sweden. For four summers (2016−2018, 2020), the abundance and size of N. norvegicus was quantified by deployment of fishing cages inside the wave power park as well as along a 1230 m long transects to the east and west of it. Furthermore, the abundance of N. norvegicus burrows were recorded by a remote operating vehicle (ROV) along the same transects. N. norvegicus abundance, size and burrow density were expected to decrease with distance from the wave power park. During the study period, the number of N. norvegicus slightly increased, by 0.03 individuals every 100 m. Interannual variation of distance-dependent change in abundance resulted in up to 45.6 % fewer individuals in one km distance from the wave park in 2016 but in turn 25.8 % more individuals in one km distance from the wave park in 2018. Carapace length slightly decreased throughout the study, on average by 0.03 cm for every 100 m distance from the wave power park. Interannual variation of distance-dependent change in carapace length varied by one order of magnitude, resulting up to 10.6 % smaller individuals per km distance from the park in 2017. Overall, the number of N. norvegicus burrows decreased with distance, by 0.7 burrows every 100 m. Variation of distance-dependent change in burrow abundance resulted in 26.1 and 45.2 % more burrows in 2016 and 2017, respectively. The results suggest a benefit for the size and burrow density of N. norvegicus and a limited role for the number of individuals from the small and newly introduced incidental no-take zone of the Sotenäs Project wave power park. 

Keywords
Marine protected area; Marine renewable energy; Wave energy; Wave power; Cage fishing; ROV; Decapod; Benthos; Skagerrak; Norway lobster; Nephrops norvegicus
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-466348 (URN)
Available from: 2022-01-31 Created: 2022-01-31 Last updated: 2022-02-02
5. Effects of Wave Energy Generators on Nephrops Norvegicus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Wave Energy Generators on Nephrops Norvegicus
2018 (English)In: AWTEC 2018 Proceedings, 2018, article id 283Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wave energy research is primarily focused on the technical developments of energy conversion but the parallel evaluation of environmental effects related to wave energy is also essential and reflects sustainable development of renewable energy. At the west coast of Sweden, 120 km north of Gothenburg, the Wave Energy Park “Sotenäs Project” is located. This area has been the location of environmental impact studies from wave energy generators on the macro crustacean species Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758), the Norway lobster. The Norway lobster is an ecologically as well as economically important species in Sweden and across Europe. The aim of this preliminary study was to detect possible positive or negative effects on numbers of individuals by the presence of the wave energy generators and the created “no take” zone. For that purpose, ROV aided seabed recordings of the characteristic Norway lobster burrow entrances were conducted inside the Wave Energy Park and respective control areas in 2016 and 2017. Preliminary results do not show a clear distinct result between the different transects and years. Long-term observations and complementary studies are necessary to draw conclusions and outweigh extreme and rare events of annual one-time samplings.

National Category
Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-361412 (URN)
Conference
4th Asian Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (AWTEC 2018), Sep. 9-13 2018, Taipei, Taiwan
Available from: 2018-09-24 Created: 2018-09-24 Last updated: 2022-02-02Bibliographically approved
6. A Review of Methods and Models for Environmental Monitoring of Marine Renewable Energy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Review of Methods and Models for Environmental Monitoring of Marine Renewable Energy
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 12th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, EWTEC , 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A continued expansion of the marine renewable energy sector will result in an increased demand in monitoring the natural marine environment. This may be due to a basic scientific interest but is foremost linked to the requirement of pre- and post-construction studies in relation to environmental impact assessments and consenting processes for marine renewable energy projects. With focus on wave and tidal power, but without attempting to provide a comprehensive list, we review methods, technologies and other scientific tools used for monitoring and predicting possible impacts from marine energy installations, on both population and behavioural levels. This includes traditional methods such as fishing gear, like nets and cages, modern technologies such as platforms with multi parameter equipment and the use of deterministic models. This paper is intended to serve as an overview for technology developers as well as authorities, regulators and decision makers with interests in general techniques, and naturally for scientists and consultants commonly being executors of studies and monitoring programs. By giving relevant and up to date references this paper may also be useful for finding more detailed information on study methods and variants. Finally, we give recommendations on where development of technologies is needed in order to face future requirements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EWTEC, 2017
Keywords
Environmental monitoring, Monitoring techniques and platforms, Models, Impact assessment, Wave power, Tidal power, Offshore windpower, Marine renewable energy
National Category
Engineering and Technology Marine Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330179 (URN)
Conference
European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (EWTEC, 7th Aug -1st Sept 2017, Cork, Ireland
Available from: 2017-09-27 Created: 2017-09-27 Last updated: 2022-02-02Bibliographically approved
7. Deployment and Maintenance of Wave Energy Converters at the Lysekil Research Site: A Comparative Study on the Use of Divers and Remotely-Operated Vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deployment and Maintenance of Wave Energy Converters at the Lysekil Research Site: A Comparative Study on the Use of Divers and Remotely-Operated Vehicles
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, E-ISSN 2077-1312, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ocean renewable technologies have been rapidly developing over the past years. However, current high installation, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning costs are hindering these offshore technologies to reach a commercialization stage. In this paper we focus on the use of divers and remotely-operated vehicles during the installation and monitoring phase of wave energy converters. Methods and results are based on the wave energy converter system developed by Uppsala University, and our experience in offshore deployments obtained during the past eleven years. The complexity of underwater operations, carried out by either divers or remotely-operated vehicles, is emphasized. Three methods for the deployment of wave energy converters are economically and technically analyzed and compared: one using divers alone, a fully-automated approach using remotely-operated vehicles, and an intermediate approach, involving both divers and underwater vehicles. The monitoring of wave energy converters by robots is also studied, both in terms of costs and technical challenges. The results show that choosing an autonomous deployment method is more advantageous than a diver-assisted method in terms of operational time, but that numerous factors prevent the wide application of robotized operations. Technical solutions are presented to enable the use of remotely-operated vehicles instead of divers in ocean renewable technology operations. Economically, it is more efficient to use divers than autonomous vehicles for the deployment of six or fewer wave energy converters. From seven devices, remotely-operated vehicles become advantageous.

National Category
Marine Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348816 (URN)10.3390/jmse6020039 (DOI)000436558500011 ()
Funder
StandUpEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607656Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2018-04-17 Created: 2018-04-17 Last updated: 2022-02-02Bibliographically approved
8. Use of Multibeam Imaging Sonar for Observation Of Marine Mammals and Fish on a Marine Renewable Energy Site
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of Multibeam Imaging Sonar for Observation Of Marine Mammals and Fish on a Marine Renewable Energy Site
2022 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 12, article id e0275978Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental data is crucial for planning, permitting, execution and post construction monitoring of marine renewable energy projects. In harsh conditions in which marine renewable energy is harvested, integrated monitoring platforms comprising multibeam imaging sonar systems coupled with other sensors can provide multi-dimensional data of the marine environment surrounding marine renewable energy installations. The aim of this study was to test the possibilities of observing the occurrence of fish and marine mammals using a multibeam imaging sonar system deployed at a wave power test site. The results obtained from a ten-day data set proved the platform as suitable for long time underwater monitoring and also revealed that the occurrence of fish and marine mammals was distributed across characteristic time and space domains. Large fish [>0.4 m] frequently occurred at night-time and near the benthic zone. Small fish [<0.2 m] frequently occurred during daylight and within the pelagic zone. The occurrence of seals was periodically distributed along a daily cycle, with intervals of 1 – 2 hours between maxima and minima. In conclusion, the use of multibeam imaging sonar can be a reliable technique for the qualitative and quantitative observations of fish and marine mammals in general and at marine renewable energy sites specifically, including protected and economically important species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2022
Keywords
Environmental monitoring, Multibeam imaging sonar, Fish, Marine mammals, Renewable energy, Wave power, Lysekil research site
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368877 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0275978 (DOI)000925168900007 ()36516145 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607656Carl Tryggers foundation J. Gust. Richert stiftelseStandUp
Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2023-04-21Bibliographically approved

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