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Norway spruce postglacial recolonization of Fennoscandia
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4744-5205
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8580-4291
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2022 (English)In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, article id 1333Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Contrasting theories exist regarding how Norway spruce (Picea abies) recolonized Fennoscandia after the last glaciation and both early Holocene establishments from western microrefugia and late Holocene colonization from the east have been postulated. Here, we show that Norway spruce was present in southern Fennoscandia as early as 14.7 ± 0.1 cal. kyr BP and that the millennia-old clonal spruce trees present today in central Sweden likely arrived with an early Holocene migration from the east. Our findings are based on ancient sedimentary DNA from multiple European sites (N = 15) combined with nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analysis of ancient clonal (N = 135) and contemporary spruce forest trees (N = 129) from central Sweden. Our other findings imply that Norway spruce was present shortly after deglaciation at the margins of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet, and support previously disputed finds of pollen in southern Sweden claiming spruce establishment during the Lateglacial.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature Springer Nature, 2022. Vol. 13, article id 1333
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-467857DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-28976-4ISI: 000769063600023PubMedID: 35288569OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-467857DiVA, id: diva2:1638576
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-04548Swedish Research Council, 2018-05973Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationAvailable from: 2022-02-17 Created: 2022-02-17 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions from modern and ancient plant DNA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions from modern and ancient plant DNA
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Palaeoecological studies on lake sediments and peat archives have provided fundamental knowledge about past environments, nevertheless, a lot remains to be learned. In this thesis, I focussed on plant ancient DNA extracted from sedimentary archives (sedaDNA), in combination with DNA from living trees with the aims of: (1) investigating different extraction methods and levels of inhibition in sediments, (2) investigating postglacial recolonisation history of Norway spruce in Fennoscandia, (3) comparing different sequencing and bioinformatic approaches to investigate past flora changes using sedaDNA and investigating past flora change in contrasting environments (southern Italy versus southern Sweden), and (4) communicating my work more broadly using art.

Based on seven original methodological case studies investigating enzyme inhibition, the effect of freeze-thaw and oxygen exposure on microbial composition, and the effects of DNA extraction methods on biological diversity, we formulated guidelines and recommendations for future sedaDNA analyses. We analysed DNA traces of spruce in multiple sediments from northern Europe and confirmed that the species was present in central Sweden already at the beginning of the Holocene and, more controversially, at the end of the last glaciation in southern Sweden. Moreover, genetic ancestry of spruce trees still growing today in central Sweden suggested eastern origin of early spruce colonisers. We further demonstrated that, when sedaDNA reads are mapped to a large and high-quality nuclear plant DNA database, shotgun metagenomic analysis outperforms metabarcoding for reconstructing flora in degraded samples. However, metabarcoding remains a powerful tool to investigate past flora, because our metabarcoding analysis on southern Italian lake sediment, showed woody taxa replacement in the Holocene in good agreement with previous pollen analysis. Despite several methodological issues which complicated our floristic interpretations, at this site we also recovered a rich herbaceous flora and many aquatics. Similar methodological issues and complications, however, were also observed at higher latitudes in southern Sweden during the transition from full Glacial to the Holocene, indicating that sedaDNA from temperate environments is a comparable source of information for floral reconstruction as from high-latitude lakes. 

Finally, during the work of my thesis, we produced five original paintings through a long collaboration with the scientist and artist Jill Pelto, which I used in this thesis and on many other occasions to illustrate and communicate our work to a broader audience.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2022. p. 83
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 2121
Keywords
Molecular palaeoecology, Ancient lake sediments, Post-glacial migration, Floral changes
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-467863 (URN)978-91-513-1421-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-04-08, Ekmansalen, EBC, Norbyvägen 18, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-03-14 Created: 2022-02-17 Last updated: 2022-04-05

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Nota, KevinMilesi, PascalBertilsson, StefanSvensson, BritaParducci, Laura

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