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Development of gut microbiota during the first 2 years of life
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Uppsala Clinical Research Center (UCR). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden;Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., (SKB), Stockholm, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3892-8157
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
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2022 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 9080Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

8Although development of microbiota in childhood has been linked to chronic immune-related conditions, early childhood determinants of microbiota development have not been fully elucidated. We used 16S rRNA sequencing to analyse faecal and saliva samples from 83 children at four time-points during their first 2 years of life and from their mothers. Our findings confirm that gut microbiota in infants have low diversity and highlight that some properties are shared with the oral microbiota, although inter-individual differences are present. A considerable convergence in gut microbiota composition was noted across the first 2 years of life, towards a more diverse adult-like microbiota. Mode of delivery accounted for some of the inter-individual variation in early childhood, but with a pronounced attenuation over time. Our study extends previous research with further characterization of the major shift in gut microbiota composition during the first 2 years of life.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022. Vol. 12, no 1, article id 9080
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-470208DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-13009-3ISI: 000803920600048PubMedID: 35641542OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-470208DiVA, id: diva2:1646265
Funder
Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), sens2018616Swedish Research Council, 2018-05973Available from: 2022-03-21 Created: 2022-03-21 Last updated: 2022-10-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Type l diabetes in childhood and adolescence, environmental exposures and gut microbiota
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Type l diabetes in childhood and adolescence, environmental exposures and gut microbiota
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Environmental factors leading to disturbances in the gut microbiota might play an important role as triggers for, and/or contributing factors in, the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The overall aim of the research underlying this thesis was to study the influence of environmental factor exposure on the risk of T1D in childhood and adolescence, and gut microbiota composition in early childhood.

In this project, national registers provided information about T1D onset and exposure to animals, antibiotics, caesarean section and severe stress, defined as death of a first degree relative. In the first study (1,999 T1D events), no evidence supported an association between early exposure to dog or farm animals and T1D in childhood. In the second study (1,297 T1D events), dispensed prescriptions of antibiotics in the first year of life was found to be associated with T1D during childhood. Sibling analysis did not indicate confounding from familial factors. Furthermore, the effect estimate for the association between antibiotics and T1D was largest in children delivered by caesarean section. In the third study (10,789 T1D events), death of a close relative was associated with an increased risk for T1D within the first years following the loss, and when the loss occurred during the teenage years. The fourth study was a longitudinal study using 16S rRNA sequencing to analyse faecal samples from 83 children to study the gut microbiota development from birth to 2 years of age. Having a furry pet in the household was associated with a lower abundance of a bacterial species belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. The overall gut microbiota composition was associated with prenatal exposure to antibiotics and caesarean section. Finally, caesarean section was associated with a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes and a higher abundance of Firmicutes.

In conclusion, no evidence was found in the present study to support the association of exposure to animals to lowered risk of T1D in the general population. Although exposure to antibiotics was associated with T1D, it is likely to only make a small contribution to the overall risk of T1D. Our findings support the hypothesis that severe stress might accelerate T1D onset during certain time periods. Furthermore, our findings add to the body of research showing that exposure to animals, prenatal antibiotics and caesarean section account for some of the inter-individual variation in early childhood microbiota development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2022. p. 71
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1826
Keywords
Type 1 diabetes, gut microbiota, antibiotics, stress, dogs, mode of delivery
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-470308 (URN)978-91-513-1454-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-05-13, Humanistiska Teatern, Engelska parken, Thunbergsvägen 3, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-04-20 Created: 2022-03-23 Last updated: 2022-04-20

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Wernroth, LisaPeura, SariHetty, SusanneKennedy, BeatriceSvennblad, BodilTheorell-Haglöw, JennyNguyen, DiemSayols-Baixeras, SergiDekkers, KoenBertilsson, StefanFall, Tove

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Wernroth, LisaPeura, SariHetty, SusanneKennedy, BeatriceSvennblad, BodilTheorell-Haglöw, JennyNguyen, DiemSayols-Baixeras, SergiDekkers, KoenBertilsson, StefanFall, Tove
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Uppsala Clinical Research Center (UCR)Molecular epidemiologyScience for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLabLimnologyClinical diabetology and metabolismMedical epidemiologyLung- allergy- and sleep research
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