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Prejudice: The Interplay of Personality, Cognition, and Social Psychology
Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Three main theoretical approaches to the study of the causation of prejudice can be distinguished within psychological research. The cognitive approach suggests that prejudice is a function of cognitive processes where stereotypic information about social groups, stored in memory, is automatically activated and affects people’s judgements and behavior toward members of the target group. The personality approach suggests that prejudice is a function of people’s personality characteristics. Finally, the social psychological approach emphasizes people’s group membership and group identification as the as major source of causation.

Previous research has almost entirely focused on only one approach of causation at a time. The focus has also shifted periodically – with attention paid to one approach at each period of time. The present thesis is an attempt to integrate these approaches and suggests an integrative model where the relative contribution of each approach could be assessed. The underlying assumption is that all three approaches are meaningful and that prejudice is a complex phenomenon that is best explained by taking into account all approaches jointly.

Examining the cognitive approach, Paper I revealed that people are knowledgeable of the cultural stereotypes and that stereotypic information is automatically activated and affects people’s judgments. Paper II (and Paper III) supported the personality approach and revealed that prejudice is highly related to primary personality characteristics and, in line with a central idea in this approach, different types of prejudice (ethnic prejudice, sexism, homophobia, and prejudice toward disabled people) are highly correlated. The results of Paper III revealed the importance of group membership and group identification, supporting the social psychology approach.

The findings are discussed in relation to previous research and the necessity to integrate various approaches and disciplines to explain psychological phenomena in general and prejudice in particular. Also, implications of the findings for prejudice prevention are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2005. , p. 65
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 5
Keywords [en]
Psychology, Prejudice, implicit prejudice, explicit prejudice, generalized prejudice, personality, Big-Five personality, social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, social psychology, group membership, group identification, cognition, stereotype knowledge, priming, stereotype activation
Keywords [sv]
Psykologi
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-5785ISBN: 91-554-6244-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-5785DiVA, id: diva2:166379
Public defence
2005-05-13, Room IX, Universitetshuset, Uppsala, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-04-22 Created: 2005-04-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Category and stereotype activation revisited
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Category and stereotype activation revisited
2006 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 513-522Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Study 1 (N = 230), we found that the participants' explicit prejudice was not related to their knowledge of cultural stereotypes of immigrants in Sweden, and that they associated the social category immigrants with the same national/ethnic categories. In Study 2 (N= 88), employing the category and stereotype words obtained in Study 1 as primes, we examined whether participants with varying degrees of explicit prejudice differed in their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice when primed with category or stereotypical words. In accord with our hypothesis, and contrary to previous findings, the results showed that people's explicit prejudice did not affect their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice, neither in the category nor stereotype priming condition. Study 3 (N = 62), employing category priming using facial photographs of Swedes and immigrants as primes, showed that participants' implicit prejudice was not moderated by their explicit prejudice. The outcome is discussed in relation to the distinction between category and stereotype priming and in terms of the associative strength between a social category and its related stereotypes.

Keywords
Category activation, Explicit prejudice, Implicit prejudice, Stereotype activation
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93025 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2006.00523.x (DOI)000242725900009 ()17107500 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2005-04-22 Created: 2005-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. What matters most to prejudice: Big Five personality, social dominance orientation or right-wing authoritarianism?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What matters most to prejudice: Big Five personality, social dominance orientation or right-wing authoritarianism?
2004 In: European Journal of Personality, Vol. 18, p. 463-482Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93026 (URN)
Available from: 2005-04-22 Created: 2005-04-22Bibliographically approved
3. Prejudice: Personality or social psychology?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prejudice: Personality or social psychology?
Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93027 (URN)
Available from: 2005-04-22 Created: 2005-04-22Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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