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Electromagnetic Interference in Distributed Outdoor Electrical Systems, with an Emphasis on Lightning Interaction with Electrified Railway Network
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Elektromagnetisk interferens i distribuerade elektriska system för utomhusbruk, med fokus på växelverkan mellan blixtnedslag och elektrifierad järnväg (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems of distributed electrical networks, especially that caused by lightning to electrified railway. Lightning transients were found to damage important devices that control train movements, causing traffic stoppage and delays. This thesis attempts to develop computational models for identification of parameters influencing the coupling phenomena between those devices and lightning. Some supporting experimental investigations are also carried out. This thesis forms the groundwork on the subject of lightning interaction with the electrified railway networks.

Lightning induces transient overvoltages in railway conductor systems such as tracks, overhead wires, and underground cables, either due to direct lightning strike to the system or due to the coupling of electromagnetic fields from remote strikes. Models based on multiconductor transmission line theory were developed for calculating the induced voltages and currents. A transmission line return stroke model, that can predict the remote electromagnetic fields comparable to experimental observations, is also developed.

Earlier works on modeling earth return impedances for transient studies in power distribution systems are not readily applicable for railways for lightning transients, in cases of low earth conductivities found in Sweden and for large variation in conductor heights. For the wires above ground, the ground impedance models were modified for wide range of frequencies, soil conductivities and wide spread of conductor heights. Influences of pole insulator flashovers, pole-footing soil ionizations and interconnections between the conductors on the lightning surge propagation are studied. Wave propagation in buried shielded and unshielded cables with ground return is studied. Simplified, valid and computationally efficient ground impedance expressions for buried and on-ground wires are proposed. A model for the coupling phenomena (transfer impedance) through multiple cable shields with multiconductor core is also proposed. Besides, experimental studies on lightning induced transients entering a railway technical house, failure modes of relay and rectifier units used in the train position/signaling applications for lightning transients are performed. A high frequency circuit model for the booster transformer for lightning interaction studies is developed. The simulation models are being converted to user-friendly software for the practicing engineers of the railway industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper , 2005. , p. xxiv + 206
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 76
Keywords [en]
Electrical engineering, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Lightning, Lightning Protection, Transmission Lines, Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, Underground Cables, Grounding, Electromagnetic Transients, Electromagnetic Interference, Shielding Effectiveness, Railway Systems
Keywords [sv]
Elektroteknik, elektronik och fotonik
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-5889ISBN: 91-554-6301-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-5889DiVA, id: diva2:166746
Public defence
2005-09-30, Siegbahnsalen, Ångström Laboratory, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Polacksbacken, Uppsala, 13:30
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2005-09-05 Created: 2005-09-05 Last updated: 2013-09-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. On the influence of conductor heights and lossy ground in multi-conductor transmission lines for lightning interaction studies in railway overhead traction systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the influence of conductor heights and lossy ground in multi-conductor transmission lines for lightning interaction studies in railway overhead traction systems
2004 (English)In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 186-193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Railway overhead traction system is a classic example of scattered conductor configuration, where tracks and other wires form multi-conductor transmission lines (MTLs) with large variation in conductor heights above ground and they are spread across regions having different soil conditions. Lightning transient analysis in such systems has not received much attention earlier. Here we analyze the influence of conductor heights and lossy ground on the induced voltages in a two conductor MTLs for the case of a direct lightning strike. For transient analysis, modified time domain transient ground impedance expressions having better early and late time behavior was used. The dependence of transient ground impedance on conductor heights and ground resistivity are presented and discussed. The early time transient ground impedances are unaffected by ground resistivity but their decaying nature is highly dominated by ground resistivity. It is found, if one of the conductors is close to ground (a rail) and if it is at large vertical distance from struck conductor (an auxiliary power line), then with increasing ground resistivity the peak induced voltages in the conductor close to ground initially increase, then decrease and finally tend to remain constant (within 100-10,000Ωm). This phenomenon is opposite to that compared to conductors that are close to each other with minimum vertical separation (two auxiliary power lines), where the peak induced voltages increase with increasing ground resistivity. The study focuses mainly to access when a mutual coupling due to system geometry or due to ground losses becomes dominant in determining induced effects from lightning in MTLs, which could be an important contribution to the lightning interaction studies for electrified railway systems.

Keywords
lightning protection, electromagnetic compatibility, EMC
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93293 (URN)10.1016/j.epsr.2004.02.001 (DOI)
Available from: 2005-09-05 Created: 2005-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Important Parameters That Influence Crosstalk in Multiconductor Transmission Lines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Important Parameters That Influence Crosstalk in Multiconductor Transmission Lines
2007 (English)In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 77, no 8, p. 896-909Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transient surges in one of the overhead conductors, due to direct lightning strikes, causes crosstalk [C.R. Paul, Analysis of Multiconductor Transmission Lines, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994; C.R. Paul, Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1992] in other adjacent conductors. It is a common electromagnetic interference (EMI) phenomenon observed in power lines, communication lines and electrified railway lines. In this paper we investigate the crosstalk in multiconductor transmission lines (MTLs) above finitely conducting ground as a function of ground conductivity, heights of the receptor conductor and the terminal loads. For receptor conductor close to the ground, compared to the emitter conductor [C.R. Paul, Analysis of Multiconductor Transmission Lines, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994; C.R. Paul, Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1992], the decrease in ground conductivity increases the crosstalk peak currents at near end (end near to the source in the emitter conductor) of the receptor conductor, but at the far end it could either increase or decrease depending upon the line height and ground conductivity.

It is found that the ground impedance [J.R. Carson, Wave propagation in overhead wires with ground return, Bell. Sys. Tech. J. 5 (1926) 539–554; Y.J. Wang, S.J. Liu, A review of methods for calculation of frequency dependant impedance of overhead power transmission lines, Proc. Natl. Sci. Conc. ROC (A), 25 (6), (2001) 329–338; E.D. Sunde, Earth conduction effects in transmission systems, 1st ed., Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1968; A. Deri, G. Tevan, A. Semlyen, A. Castanheira, The complex ground return plane a simplified model for homogenous & multilayer earth return, IEEE Trans. PAS 100 (8) (1981) 3686–3693; K.C. Chen, K.M. Damrau, Accuracy of approximate transmission line formulas for overhead wires, IEEE Trans. EMC 31 (4) (1989) 396–397; A. Semlyen, Ground return parameters of transmission lines an asymptotic analysis for very high frequencies, IEEE Trans. PAS 100 (3) (1981) 1031–1038; E.F. Vance, Coupling to Cable Shields, Wiley Interscience, New York, 1978; J.R. Wait, Theory of wave propagation along a thin wire parallel to an interface, Radio Sci. 7 (6) (1972) 675–679; R.G. Olsen, J.L. Young, D.C. Chang, Electromagnetic wave propagation on a thin wire above earth, IEEE Trans. Anten. Propag. 48 (9) (2000) 1413–1418; M. D’Amore, M.S. Sarto, Simulation models of a dissipative transmission line above a lossy ground for a wide-frequency range. I. Single conductor configuration, IEEE Trans. EMC 38 (2) (1996) 127–138; M. D’Amore, M.S. Sarto, Simulation models of a dissipative transmission line above a lossy ground for a wide-frequency range. II. Multiconductor configuration, IEEE Trans. EMC 38 (2) (1996) 139–149; F. Rachidi, C.A. Nucci, M. Ianoz, C. Mazzetti, Influence of lossy ground on lightning induced voltages on overhead lines, IEEE Trans. EMC 38 (3) (1996) 250–264; F. Rachidi, C.A. Nucci, M. Ianoz, Transient analysis of multiconductor lines above a lossy ground, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 14 (1) (1999) 294–302; F.M. Tesche, M.V. Ianoz, T. Karlsson, EMC Analysis Methods and Computational Models, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1997; A.K. Agrawal, H.J. Price, S.H. Gurbaxani, Transient response of multiconductor transmission lines excited by a nonuniform electromagnetic field, IEEE Trans. EMC 22 (2) (1980) 119–129] has profound influence in all the crosstalk cases studied here. Hence, a brief review and comparison of different closed form ground impedance expressions under the limits of transmission line approximation [F.M. Tesche, M.V. Ianoz, T. Karlsson, EMC Analysis Methods and Computational Models, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1997] and its behavior at both high and low frequencies is presented. It is shown that low frequency approximation of ground impedance is not sufficient for lightning transient studies involving ground conductivities lower than 10 mS/m. The observations presented in the paper have important implications in EMI studies of large distributed outdoor systems, such as the railway network, subjected to lightning strikes.

Keywords
Lightning, Transmission lines, Transient analysis, Ground impedance, Crosstalk
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-14155 (URN)10.1016/j.epsr.2006.06.014 (DOI)000246214200002 ()
Available from: 2008-04-25 Created: 2008-04-25 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3. A theoretical study on the consequence of a direct lightning strike to electrified railway system in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A theoretical study on the consequence of a direct lightning strike to electrified railway system in Sweden
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2005 (English)In: Electric Power System Research, Vol. 74, p. 267-280Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Direct lightning strike to a single-track electrified railway system in Sweden is modeled in this paper. Using this model, the induced voltages in each of the nine conductors at heights varying from 0.5 m (tracks) to 10 m above the ground are estimated. The effect of the finitely conducting ground is included using a time domain expression for the transient ground impedance that has better early time and late time behavior. The main interconnection between the conductors and the flashover strength of the supporting insulators is included in the simulations. A simple model for the arc channel during flashover of the insulators and the ionization of the soil around the pole foundations is also included in the model to assess the possible realistic surge voltage distribution in the system. It is shown in the paper that finite ground conductivity, interconnections between the conductors, arcing phenomena of insulation flashover and grounding of the poles decide the voltage/current distribution in the conductors. Simulations have been also carried out to determine the voltages on the lines and across the rails as function of distance from the point of strike as it could be a necessary data for deciding the possible future protection schemes. It was found that for a lightning stroke of 31 kA peak, large common mode and differential mode surges exist on the lines which could create excessive voltages between the line and neutral of the transformer and might pose a threat to the various low voltage equipments used for telecommunication, signaling and control.

Keywords
Electromagnetic compatibility, EMC, lightning, lightning protection
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-73855 (URN)
Available from: 2005-08-26 Created: 2005-08-26 Last updated: 2013-09-24
4. On the representation of the lightning return stroke process as a current pulse propagating along a transmission line
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the representation of the lightning return stroke process as a current pulse propagating along a transmission line
2005 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 823-837Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Assuming that the representation of the lightning return stroke as a current pulse propagating along a transmission line is valid, the effects of different transmission line parameters both on the channel current and the electromagnetic fields are investigated. The transmission line parameters that are incorporated into the study are the spatial variation of the inductance and the capacitance, the channel resistance and its temporal variation and the finite conductance of the line. The results show that the introduction of the time varying channel resistance and the finite conductance will change the predictions of the model in such a direction that they will come closer to the experimental observations.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93296 (URN)10.1109/TPWRD.2004.839188 (DOI)
Available from: 2005-09-05 Created: 2005-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Electric and magnetic fields from a semi-infinite antenna above a conducting plane
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electric and magnetic fields from a semi-infinite antenna above a conducting plane
2004 (English)In: Journal of Electrostatics, ISSN 0304-3886, E-ISSN 1873-5738, Vol. 61, no 3-4, p. 209-221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The electric and magnetic field structures around a semi-infinite thin-wire antenna vertically placed above a perfectly conducting ground plane are investigated when the antenna is supporting two different types of sources. It is shown that when the wire is carrying a uniform line charge, the electrostatic potentials are equal on the surfaces of imaginary cones of fixed cone angles with axis along the wire and apex at the conducting plane. The electrostatic field vectors are shown to be perpendicular to the imaginary cones and tangential to the meridian lines of half-spherical shells centered at the base of the line charge. The vertical components of the electrostatic field on the surface of these imaginary half-spherical shells of a given radius are constant, except at the wire itself. The magnetic field structure associated with a constant current in the semi-infinite antenna is that of an infinite wire. The electric and magnetic fields due to a time-varying charge or current pulse propagating with the speed of light along the vertical thin-wire antenna have a spherical transverse electromagnetic (TEM) field structure, identical to that for the case of a uniform line charge and a uniform current. The connection between the static and dynamic solutions is derived mathematically using two different approaches.

Keywords
pulse propagation, lightning return stroke, vertical thin-wire antenna, spherical transverse electromagnetic field
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93297 (URN)10.1016/j.elstat.2004.02.008 (DOI)
Available from: 2005-09-05 Created: 2005-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
6. Representation of the return stroke as a transmission line: the apparent return stroke velocity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Representation of the return stroke as a transmission line: the apparent return stroke velocity
2004 (English)In: Proceedings of International Conference on Lightning Protection, Avignon, France, 2004, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93298 (URN)
Conference
27th International Conference on Lightning Protection, 13-16 September, 2004, Avignon, France
Available from: 2005-09-05 Created: 2005-09-05 Last updated: 2013-09-24Bibliographically approved
7. Experimental Investigation of Lightning Transients Entering a Swedish Railway Facility
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Investigation of Lightning Transients Entering a Swedish Railway Facility
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2007 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 354-363Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transients caused by lightning in railway facilities have not received much attention. In this paper, we describe the measurements of lightning transients entering a Swedish railway facility during the summer of 2003. The measurements of the transients were made in a technical house that provides an uninterrupted power supply for telecommunication systems and the signal systems. An analysis of the data has shown that transients in excess of 7 kV (peak to peak) can appear across the line-to-neutral supply system due to an indirect lightning strike. Some typical characteristics of the line-to-neutral transient voltages in terms of stroke locations and stroke amplitudes are presented. Further, from the experimental data, an empirical relation for predicting the line-to-neutral transient voltage in terms of stroke location and stroke current amplitude is obtained. Simple induced voltage calculations are presented to identify the levels of induced voltages appearing at the input of the technical house. The influence of ground conductivity on those induced voltages is also presented. The information presented in the paper is an important electromagnetic-compatibility issue associated with the lightning protection for railway systems.

Keywords
Lightning, Rail transportation power systems, Rail transportation reliability, Transients
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93299 (URN)10.1109/TPWRD.2006.881418 (DOI)000243172600046 ()
Available from: 2005-09-05 Created: 2005-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
8. Lightning current pulse propagation in underground wires - a transmission line analysis: Part I- Simple expressions for external wire impedance and admittance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lightning current pulse propagation in underground wires - a transmission line analysis: Part I- Simple expressions for external wire impedance and admittance
In: Paper in review at IEEE Transactions on Power DeliveryArticle in journal (Refereed) In press
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93300 (URN)
Available from: 2005-09-05 Created: 2005-09-05 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
9. Lightning current pulse propagation in underground wires - a transmission line analysis: Part II- Time domain simulations for sensitivity analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lightning current pulse propagation in underground wires - a transmission line analysis: Part II- Time domain simulations for sensitivity analysis
In: Paper in review at IEEE Transactions on Power DeliveryArticle in journal (Refereed) In press
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93301 (URN)
Available from: 2005-09-05 Created: 2005-09-05 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
10. Pulse Propagation in Underground Wires-A Transmission Line Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pulse Propagation in Underground Wires-A Transmission Line Analysis
2005 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93302 (URN)
Conference
Radio Vetenskap Kommunikation (RVK05), Linköping. June 14-16
Available from: 2005-09-05 Created: 2005-09-05 Last updated: 2013-09-24Bibliographically approved
11. Lightning strikes to tall towers with implications to electromagnetic interference
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lightning strikes to tall towers with implications to electromagnetic interference
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of RadioVetenskap och Kommunikation (RVK 05), Linkoping, Sweden, 2005, 2005, p. 465-470Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93303 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Conference on Radio Science and Communications (RVK 05), 14-16 June, 2005, Linköping, Sweden
Available from: 2005-09-05 Created: 2005-09-05 Last updated: 2013-09-24Bibliographically approved
12. Computer simulation model for Swedish railway system for evaluating the effects of lightning and EMI
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computer simulation model for Swedish railway system for evaluating the effects of lightning and EMI
Show others...
2003 (English)In: Proceedings of the World Congress on Railway Research, 2003Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
electromagnetic compatibility
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93304 (URN)
Conference
The 6th World Congress on Railway Research, 28 sept - 1 oct, 2003, Edinburgh, England
Available from: 2005-09-05 Created: 2005-09-05 Last updated: 2013-09-24Bibliographically approved
13. The striking distance of lightning flashes and the early streamer emission (ESE) hypothesis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The striking distance of lightning flashes and the early streamer emission (ESE) hypothesis
2007 (English)In: Journal of Electrostatics, ISSN 0304-3886, E-ISSN 1873-5738, Vol. 65, no 5-6, p. 336-341Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The attachment of a lightning flash to a lightning conductor (or to any other structure) takes place through a connecting leader that rises from the structure towards the descending stepped leader of a lightning flash. The spatial separation between the tip of the stepped leader and the lightning conductor (or the grounded structure) at the initiation of the connecting leader is known as the striking distance. In this paper the striking distance of stepped leaders is derived as a function of conductor height, conductor radii and the prospective return stroke current. Based on these results the validity of the early streamer emission (ESE) hypothesis is discussed. According to the ESE hypothesis, the striking distance of a lightning conductor can be increased by the artificial initiation of streamers from a lightning conductor. The results cast doubt on the validity of the ESE hypothesis. This in turn calls for more experimental data and field validations before using the ESE hypothesis in standard lightning protection practice.

Keywords
Early streamer emission, Lightning, Lightning protection, Stepped leader, Striking distance
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93305 (URN)10.1016/j.elstat.2006.09.006 (DOI)000246039400009 ()
Available from: 2005-09-05 Created: 2005-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
14. The relationship between the leader charge and the return stroke current: Berger's data revisited
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between the leader charge and the return stroke current: Berger's data revisited
2004 (English)In: International Conference on Lightning Protection, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93306 (URN)
Conference
27th International Conference on Lightning Protection, 13-16 September, 2004, Avignon, France
Available from: 2005-09-05 Created: 2005-09-05 Last updated: 2013-09-24Bibliographically approved

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