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Gene-Environment Interaction in Adolescent Deviant Behaviour
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of this thesis was to explore gene-environmental (G*E) interactions in relation to deviant behaviour among 200 Swedish adolescents, with a focus on criminality, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms. Those behaviours have been extensively investigated in relation to both psychosocial and biological risk factors. The biological markers used were the monoamine oxidase (MAO-A) and serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) gene polymorphisms.

The main findings indicated a considerable gene-environment interaction in relation to all outcome variables studied. Individuals with the long/short variant of the 5HTTLPR gene, in combination with unfavourable family relations, both consumed more alcohol and had 12-14 times higher risks of being classified as high alcohol consumers.

The MAO-A gene showed a G*E interaction related to criminality. Among boys, the short allele predicted an increased risk for criminality, whereas among girls, it was the long allele, if they lived in multi-family houses and/or had been maltreated, assaulted or sexually abused.

A G*E interaction in relation to depressive symptoms among both boys and girls was determined. Girls carrying the short 5HTTLPR allele in combination with psychosocial stress, presented elevated depressive symptoms, whereas among boys, the long 5HTTLPR allele was a source of depressive symptoms. In both sexes, there was a G*E interaction of a psychosocial risk index. Girls were more affected by poor family relations and boys by multi-family housing and separated parents.

In conclusion, the MAO-A and 5HTTLPR genotypes, in interaction with psychosocial adversity, are related to different deviant behaviours among adolescents. The direct effects of the genotypes needed to be adjusted for the psychosocial factors, whereas the psychosocial factors had direct relation to the outcome measures. There is also an indication of a different pattern in G*E interaction between boys and girls and that different psychosocial factors affect boys and girls differently.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2006. , p. 91
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 114
Keywords [en]
Neurobiology, Adolescent, Alcohol, Criminology, Genes, Environment, Monoamine Oxidase, Serotonin, Social Support
Keywords [sv]
Neurobiologi
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-6536ISBN: 91-554-6478-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-6536DiVA, id: diva2:167799
Public defence
2006-04-07, Kongresshallen, AROS CONGRESS CENTER, Munkgatan 7, Västerås, 13:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-03-17 Created: 2006-03-17 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Role of Monoamine Oxidase A Genotype and Psychosocial Factors in Male Adolescent Criminal Activity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Role of Monoamine Oxidase A Genotype and Psychosocial Factors in Male Adolescent Criminal Activity
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2006 (English)In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 2, no 59, p. 121-127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

A number of important sociological, psychological, and biological predictors of adolescent criminal behavior have been identified during the most recent decades. The aim of this study was to replicate recent findings that interactions between a polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene promoter region and psychosocial factors might predict male adolescent criminal activity.

Methods

A cross-sectional study with a randomized sample from the total population of 16- and 19-year-olds from the county of Västmanland, Sweden. Eighty-one male adolescents, who volunteered to participate, were randomly selected from groups representing different degrees of deviant risk behavior.

Results

The present study strongly supports the notion that carrying the 3-repeat allele of the MAO-A–gene promoter increases the risk of male adolescent criminal behavior, when interacting with psychosocial factors. No effects at all of the MAO-A genotype on adolescent criminal activity were found when MAO-A genotype was considered alone (i.e., without its psychosocial context). The explained variance of the bio-psychosocial model (controlling for MAO-A) in this study exceeded the psychosocial model by 12%.

Conclusions

The findings support the notion that genotype and psychosocial factors interact to precipitate male adolescent criminal behavior.

Keywords
adolescents, criminology, genes, social support, environment, linear models
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94071 (URN)10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.06.024 (DOI)000234871600004 ()
Available from: 2006-03-17 Created: 2006-03-17 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
2. Role of the Serotonin Transporter Gene and Family Function in Adolescent Alcohol Consumption
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Role of the Serotonin Transporter Gene and Family Function in Adolescent Alcohol Consumption
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2005 (English)In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 564-570Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: That the extent to which a particular individual will engage in problematic behaviors such as delinquency, violence, or drug abuse is determined by the way psychosocial, situational, and hereditary factors interact is widely accepted. However, only recently have researchers begun to investigate the interactions between specific genotypes and psychosocial factors in relation to behavior. The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible interactions between a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene and family relations on adolescent alcohol consumption.

Methods: A cross-sectional study with a randomized sample from a total population of 16- and 19-year-old adolescents from a Swedish county was conducted. Eighty-one male and 119 female adolescents, who volunteered to participate after having answered a questionnaire, were randomly selected from quartiles of volunteers representing various degrees of psychosocial risk behavior.

Results: 5-HTT genotype (p= 0.029) and family relations (p= 0.022) predicted alcohol consumption independently as well as through an interaction with one another (p= 0.05). The model explained 11% of the variance in alcohol consumption. In a binary logistic model, we found that adolescents with the LS variant of the 5-HTT gene and with family relations being “neutral” or “bad” had a 12- to 14-fold increased risk for high intoxication frequency.

Conclusions: In sum, our results show that a functional polymorphism of the 5-HTT genotype, family relations, and interactions between these variables predict adolescent alcohol consumption in a randomized sample of adolescents.

Keywords
alcohol, adolescent, genes, environment
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94072 (URN)10.1097/01.ALC.0000159112.98941.B0 (DOI)000228577100010 ()
Available from: 2006-03-17 Created: 2006-03-17 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
3. Development of depression: sex and the interaction between environment and a promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of depression: sex and the interaction between environment and a promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene
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2006 (English)In: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 1461-1457, E-ISSN 1469-5111, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 443-449Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has demonstrated that a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and adverse psychosocial circumstances interact to predict depression. The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which sex modulates these effects. Eighty-one boys and 119 girls (16-19 years old) were interviewed about psychosocial background variables and genotyped for the 5-HTT promoter polymorphism. There were two main results. First, boys and girls carrying the short 5-HTTLPR allele react to different kinds of environmental factors. Whereas males were affected by living in public housing rather than in own owned homes and by living with separated parents, females were affected by traumatic conflicts within the family. Second, the responses of males and females carrying the short 5-HTTLPR allele to environmental stress factors go in opposite directions. Thus, whereas females tend to develop depressive symptoms, males seem to be protected from depression. The results suggest that both the molecular and the psychosocial mechanisms underlying depression may differ between boys and girls.

Keywords
depression, gene-environment interaction, genotype, phenotype, sex characteristics
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94073 (URN)10.1017/S1461145705005936 (DOI)000239476100007 ()16212676 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2006-03-17 Created: 2006-03-17 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
4. Adolescent girls and criminal activity: Role of MAOA-LPR genotype and psychosocial factors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adolescent girls and criminal activity: Role of MAOA-LPR genotype and psychosocial factors
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2007 (English)In: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, ISSN 1552-4841, E-ISSN 1552-485X, Vol. 144, no 2, p. 159-164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent findings among boys show that interactions between a polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene promoter region (MAOA-LPR) and psychosocial factors predict criminal activity. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this finding could be extended to adolescent girls. One hundred nineteen female adolescents were recruited among respondents to a cross-sectional study of the total population of 16- and 19-year old girls. These girls constituted a randomly selected sub-sample from groups representing different degrees of risk behavior. The subjects filled in a questionnaire and were interviewed and genotyped with regard to MAOA-LPR. The results indicate that the long, (4-repeat) allele confer an increased risk for criminal behavior in the presence of psychosocial risk. Among girls without social risk, MAOA-LPR genotype was of no importance for criminal behavior. The present results suggest that previous observations on adolescent males, which demonstrate that the short MAOA-LPR genotype and psychosocial adversity interact to predict criminal activity, may not be applicable to females.

Keywords
Adolescents, Criminology, Environment, Genes, Monoamine oxidase, Sex characteristics, Social support
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94074 (URN)10.1002/ajmg.b.30360 (DOI)000244729000002 ()17034017 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2006-03-17 Created: 2006-03-17 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved

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