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Integrated Antennas: Monolithic and Hybrid Approaches
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis considers integration of antennas and active electronics manufactured on the same substrate. The main topic is on-chip antennas for commercial silicon processes, but hybrid integration using printed circuit board technology is also addressed.

The possible use of micromachining techniques as a means of reducing substrate losses of antennas manufactured on low resistivity silicon wafers is investigated. Compact dipole, loop, and inverted-F antennas for the 20-40 GHz frequency range are designed, implemented, and characterized. The results show significantly improved antenna efficiency when micromachining is used as a post-processing step for on-chip antennas manufactured in silicon technology.

High resistivity wafers are used in a commercial silicon germanium technology to improve the efficiency of dipole antennas realized using the available circuit metal layers in the process. Monolithically integrated 24 GHz receivers with on-chip antennas are designed and evaluated with regard to antenna and system performance. No noticeable degradation of the receiver performance caused by cross talk between the antenna and the integrated circuit is observed.

For low frequency antenna arrays, such as base station antennas, hybrid integration of active devices within the antenna aperture is treated. A compact varactor based phase shifter for traveling wave antenna applications is proposed and evaluated. Electrically steerable traveling wave patch antenna arrays, with the phase shifters implemented in the same conductor layer as the radiating elements, are designed and manufactured in microstrip technology. It is experimentally verified that the radiation from the feed network and phase shifters in the proposed antenna configuration is small.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2006. , p. 69
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 221
Keywords [en]
Electronics, antenna travelling wave arrays, antenna phased arrays, phase shifters, micromachining, silicon, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, dipole antennas, loop antennas, slot antennas
Keywords [sv]
Elektronik
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-7142ISBN: 91-554-6651-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-7142DiVA, id: diva2:168866
Public defence
2006-10-13, Siegbahnsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsv. 1, Uppsala, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-09-22 Created: 2006-09-22 Last updated: 2013-05-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. 24 GHz ISM-Band Antennas on Surface Micromachined Substrates for Integration with a Commercial SiGe Process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>24 GHz ISM-Band Antennas on Surface Micromachined Substrates for Integration with a Commercial SiGe Process
2003 In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Wireless Technology, 2003, p. 101-104Chapter in book (Other academic) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94857 (URN)
Available from: 2006-09-22 Created: 2006-09-22Bibliographically approved
2. Compact Micromachined Dipole Antenna for 24 GHz Differential SiGe Integrated Circuits
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compact Micromachined Dipole Antenna for 24 GHz Differential SiGe Integrated Circuits
Show others...
Chapter in book (Other academic) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94858 (URN)
Available from: 2006-09-22 Created: 2006-09-22Bibliographically approved
3. Monolithic Integration of an Antenna with a 24 GHz Image-Rejection Receiver in SiGE HBT Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monolithic Integration of an Antenna with a 24 GHz Image-Rejection Receiver in SiGE HBT Technology
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2005 In: Proceeding of the 35th European MIcrowave Conference, 2005Chapter in book (Other academic) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94859 (URN)
Available from: 2006-09-22 Created: 2006-09-22Bibliographically approved
4. Micromachined Inverted F Antenna for Low Resistivity Silicon Substrates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Micromachined Inverted F Antenna for Low Resistivity Silicon Substrates
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2005 In: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 15, no 10, p. 627-629Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94860 (URN)
Available from: 2006-09-22 Created: 2006-09-22Bibliographically approved
5. Micromachined Loop Antennas for Low Resistivity Silicon Substrates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Micromachined Loop Antennas for Low Resistivity Silicon Substrates
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2006 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, E-ISSN 1558-2221, Vol. 54, no 12, p. 3593-3601Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The integration of K-band (2040 GHz) full wavelength square wire- and slot-loop antennas on low resistivity (11-70 Omega cm) silicon substrates is addressed. By the use of polymer or silicon oxide/nitride membranes to support the slot or wire loop over micromachined trenches the efficiency of the antennas is enhanced while the majority of the bulk silicon within the apterture of the antenna is preserved to enable the integration of active devices. A 3.6 x 3.6 mm(2) large slot loop antenna chip with 200 mu m micromachined trench width yields 1.5 dBi gain at 29.5 GM, while 1.0 dBi gain is obtained at 24 GHz for a wire loop antenna on a 4.5 x 4.5 mm(2) large chip with 360 mu m wide trenches.

Keywords
loop antennas, micromachining, silicon, slot antennas
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-93965 (URN)10.1109/TAP.2006.886532 (DOI)000242814800009 ()
Available from: 2006-01-19 Created: 2006-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
6. Monolithic Integration of a Folded Dipole Antenna With a 24-GHz Receiver in SiGe HBT Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monolithic Integration of a Folded Dipole Antenna With a 24-GHz Receiver in SiGe HBT Technology
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2007 (English)In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 1467-1475Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The integration of an on-chip folded dipole antenna with a monolithic 24-GHz receiver manufactured in a 0.8-mum SiGe HBT process is presented. A high-resistivity silicon substrate (1000 Omega ldr cm) is used for the implemented circuit to improve the efficiency of the integrated antenna. Crosstalk between the antenna and spiral inductors is analyzed and isolation techniques are described. The receiver, including the receive and an optional transmit antenna, requires a chip area of 4.5 mm2 and provides 30-dB conversion gain at 24 GHz with a power consumption of 960 mW.

Keywords
Dipole antennas, heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs), monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) receivers
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94862 (URN)10.1109/TMTT.2007.900315 (DOI)000248063100007 ()
Available from: 2006-09-22 Created: 2006-09-22 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
7. Compact Reflective Microstrip Phase Shifter for Traveling Wave Antenna Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compact Reflective Microstrip Phase Shifter for Traveling Wave Antenna Applications
2006 (English)In: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, ISSN 1531-1309, E-ISSN 1558-1764, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 431-433Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A varactor diode based microstrip phase shifter for 5.8 GHz is presented. It is designed for use in microstrip traveling Wave antennas where there is a strict limitation on the available space for the phase shifters. To meet all requirements, a reflective type phase shifter is chosen. Such a phase shifter includes a hybrid coupler. A compact branch line coupler is designed to make the phase shifter fit between the radiating elements in the antenna, while maintaining sufficient electrical performance. Phase shifters are designed with different types of stubs connecting the diodes to ground. A phase tuning range of 621 is measured for a phase shifter with parallel open stubs, and 92 degrees with shorted stubs. Insertion loss is in both cases less than 0.6 dB. A complete five-element array antenna is built and characterized. Measurements show beam scanning angles within 32 degrees from broadside.

Keywords
branch line coupler; hybrid; reflective type phase shifter (RTPS); traveling wave antenna; varactor
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94863 (URN)10.1109/LMWC.2006.877126 (DOI)000238865400015 ()
External cooperation:
Available from: 2006-09-22 Created: 2006-09-22 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
8. Electrically Steerable Single-Layer Microstrip Travelling Wave Antenna With Varactor Diode Based
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrically Steerable Single-Layer Microstrip Travelling Wave Antenna With Varactor Diode Based
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In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and PropagationArticle in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-94864 (URN)
Available from: 2006-09-22 Created: 2006-09-22Bibliographically approved

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