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Genetic Analyses of Bovid Remains and the Origin of Early European Cattle
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aurochs Bos primigenius, extinct since 1627, was the wild progenitor of cattle. It is believed that all European cattle originate from one domestication event in the Near East 10 000 years ago. However, it is evident from the archaeological record that the aurochs survived into historic time and spent many years existing alongside domestic cattle. Thus, a question posed is whether aurochsen were locally domesticated or incorporated into early domestic cattle stock.

In this thesis, genetic techniques are applied to ancient and modern DNA from bovids in order to study questions relating to the origin of early European cattle. DNA from ancient specimens is fragmented and in greatly reduced quantity. Therefore mitochondrial DNA, present in many copies in the living cell, has long been dominating the ancient DNA research field. Analyses of ancient DNA presented in this work are based on both mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA, through the study of Single Nuclear Polymorohism (SNPs). A method for typing ancient SNPs was developed and applied to ancient cattle bones.

Mitochondrial DNA of cattle is structured into five geographically distributed lineages, the dominant lineage in Europe is also found in the Near East where additional lineages are found. This pattern has been attributed to the proposed domestication event in the Near East from where cattle carrying the single lineage were brought to Europe. However, the results presented here show that cattle domestication was more complicated than previously suggested. SNP data from extant cattle and bones from cattle and aurochs point towards a hybridisation event. European cattle appear indeed to have been domesticated in the Near East and brought in to the European continent from there. However, once in Europe, hybridisation with local aurochsen took place. It appears therefore that today’s cattle descend both from both Anatolian and European aurochsen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2006. , p. 66
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 234
Keywords [en]
Molecular genetics
Keywords [sv]
Genetik, Bos taurus, cattle, domestication, aDNA, mtDNA, SNPs
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-7201ISBN: 91-554-6688-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-7201DiVA, id: diva2:169076
Public defence
2006-11-10, Lindhalsalen, EBC, Norbyvägen 14, Uppsala, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-10-20 Created: 2006-10-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle
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2005 In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Vol. 102, no 14, p. 8431-8435Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95018 (URN)
Available from: 2006-10-20 Created: 2006-10-20Bibliographically approved
2. Tracing genetic change over time with SNPs in ancient and modern cattle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracing genetic change over time with SNPs in ancient and modern cattle
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Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95019 (URN)
Available from: 2006-10-20 Created: 2006-10-20 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
3. Cattle domestication in the near east was followed by hybridization with aurochs bulls in Europe
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cattle domestication in the near east was followed by hybridization with aurochs bulls in Europe
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2005 In: Proc. R. Soc. B, Vol. 272, no 1579, p. 2345-2350Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95020 (URN)
Available from: 2006-10-20 Created: 2006-10-20Bibliographically approved
4. Identification of X and Y specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletions diagnostic of taurine Bos taurus and indicine Bos indicus cattle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of X and Y specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletions diagnostic of taurine Bos taurus and indicine Bos indicus cattle
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Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95021 (URN)
Available from: 2006-10-20 Created: 2006-10-20 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
5. Mitochondrial DNA variation in ancient European cattle: tracing the introduction routes of domestic cattle
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mitochondrial DNA variation in ancient European cattle: tracing the introduction routes of domestic cattle
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Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95022 (URN)
Available from: 2006-10-20 Created: 2006-10-20 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved
6. Medieval remains from Lithuania indicate loss of a mitochondrial haplotype in Bison bonasus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Medieval remains from Lithuania indicate loss of a mitochondrial haplotype in Bison bonasus
2006 In: Molecular Ecology Comment, Vol. 15, no 10, p. 3083-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95023 (URN)
Available from: 2006-10-20 Created: 2006-10-20Bibliographically approved

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