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Energy Metabolic Stress Syndrome: Impact of Physical Activity of Different Intensity and Duration
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

All living cell functions require an ongoing supply of energy derived from carbohydrates, lipids and proteins with their own pathways of breakdown. All of them end up in the oxidation of reduced coenzymes, yielding chemically-bound energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). One broad definition of energy would be the capability to do work and, therefore, the more work that has to be done, the more energy is needed, which may under extreme conditions put the cell into a state of energy metabolic stress. This complex of problems has been examined in the present thesis, where individuals representing different degrees of training status, have been subjected to various types of stressful work-loads as regards intensity and duration. Meanwhile, the energy turnover has been monitored on different levels as whole body (organism)-, single organ/tissue-, cellular and molecular levels.

Combined methodologies have been developed and utilized to examine carefully and in some detail energy expenditure and biochemical variables with study subjects under long-term, (outfield) physically and mentally stressful conditions.

When the individuals were in a well-controlled energy balance, a diet rich in saturated fatty acids did not elicit any major metabolic stress signs concerning serum lipoproteins and/or insulin/glucose homeostasis during the test period including high volume and low intensity energy turn over. Only a slight decrease in the Apo-B / Apo-A1 ratio was observed, despite a period of totally sedentary life style among the participants. Mental stress combined with a varying energy balance during off-shore sailing races was shown to cause such an energy metabolic stress situation that development of abdominal obesity and signs of a metabolic syndrome in embryo affected the participants who were young, non-obese men and despite their fairly healthy lifestyle concerning the diet they were on and their physical activity habits. Even well-trained young individuals of both sexes, subjected to exhaustive endurance (high intensity exercise session), developed signs of insulin resistance with a deteriorated intracellular glucose availability leading to a supposed ion pump failure and a disturbed osmoregulation on a cellular level. Hence, they presented themselves as having acquired an energy metabolic stress like condition.

In conclusion, an energy metabolic stress syndrome has been described, basically due to impaired fuelling of ion pumps with a cluster of signs and symptoms on single organ/tissue-, cellular and molecular levels manifested by muscular intracellular swelling, tendency towards erythrocyte shrinkage as a consequence of a relative insulin resistance concomitant with ion distribution disturbances (Gardos effect), oxidative stress and osmoregulatory taurine leakage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2006. , p. 79
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 209
Keywords [en]
Medicine, energy, ATP, metabolism, nutrition, body-composition, physical-activity, stress, insulin-resistance, ion-pumps, intracellular swelling and -shrinkage, taurine, reactive oxygen species
Keywords [sv]
Medicin
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-7366ISBN: 91-554-6741-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-7366DiVA, id: diva2:169348
Public defence
2006-12-09, Robersalen, A40, Akademiska sjukhuset, ingång 40, 5 tr., Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-11-17 Created: 2006-11-17 Last updated: 2010-03-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Energy turnover in a sailing crew during offshore racing around the world
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy turnover in a sailing crew during offshore racing around the world
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1996 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1272-1276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy turnover during offshore sailing was studied in 11 male crew members of one team during the first three legs of the 1993-1994 Whitbread Round The World Race. The effect of racing on the energy balance of the crew members was studied by anthropometric measurements and dietary intake as calculated from food inventories before and after each leg. Energy turnover, calculated from dietary intake and release of endogenous energy as a result of changes in body composition, was higher than expected (about 18-20 MJ·d-1). These findings were confirmed using the doubly labeled water technique in six crew members during the third leg, in which mean energy turnover was found to be 19.3 MJ·d-1. Changes in body weight and composition indicated a negative energy balance during all legs.

National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95215 (URN)8897384 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2006-11-17 Created: 2006-11-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Minor changes in blood lipids after 6 weeks of high-volume low-intensity physical activity with strict energy balance control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minor changes in blood lipids after 6 weeks of high-volume low-intensity physical activity with strict energy balance control
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2006 In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, Vol. 96, no 3, p. 315-321Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95216 (URN)
Available from: 2006-11-17 Created: 2006-11-17Bibliographically approved
3. Development of abdominal fat and incipient metabolic syndrome in young healthy men exposed to long-term stress
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of abdominal fat and incipient metabolic syndrome in young healthy men exposed to long-term stress
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2007 (English)In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 427-435Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The sympathetic nervous system may be involved in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and metabolic cardiovascular syndrome in young men. The aim was to study the effects of long-term stress on different features of the metabolic syndrome (MES) in formerly non-obese healthy young males during 5 months of defined conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen healthy male sailors (mean age 36.5 (SD)+/-7 years) participating in a sailing race around the world were recruited for the study. Investigations were done before the start and at stop overs after finishing laps 1, 2 and 4 (1, 2(1/2) and 5 months, respectively). Anthropometric and blood pressure data as well as biochemical data associated with MES were substantiated. Food intake and exercise were chartered and largely controlled. A mean weight loss of 4.5+/-2 kg (P<0.005), comprising both fat and lean body mass, was recorded during the first lap. Subsequently after 5 months, a weight gain, mainly consisting of 1.2+/-1.1 kg body fat (P<0.05), took place, concomitantly with a protein mass drop of 0.6+/-1.1 kg (P<0.05). The body fat gain accumulated on the abdominal region. Elevated blood levels of HbA1c, insulin and the triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein ratio were also observed during the race. Likewise heart rate and systolic blood pressure increased slightly but to a statistically significant extent. CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese healthy young men exposed to long-term stress developed abdominal obesity and signs of a metabolic syndrome in embryo, also emphasized by biochemical and blood pressure alterations. It is suggested that long-term and sustained stress activation might be an additional risk factor for the development of MES, even after control of dietary and exercise habits.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-15959 (URN)10.1016/j.numecd.2006.03.001 (DOI)000249711700003 ()17134957 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-04-15 Created: 2008-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Metabolic stress-like condition induced by prolonged strenuous exercise in well-trained athletes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metabolic stress-like condition induced by prolonged strenuous exercise in well-trained athletes
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Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-95218 (URN)
Available from: 2006-11-17 Created: 2006-11-17Bibliographically approved

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