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Stress Coping Strategies in Brown Trout (Salmo Trutta): Ecological Significance and Effects of Sea-Ranching
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Two distinct stress coping strategies, proactive and reactive, have been stated in various animal studies, each associated with a set of behavioural and physiological characteristics. In a given challenging situation, proactive animals show more aggression, a higher general activity and a predominant sympathetic reaction. In contrast, the reactive copers respond more with immobility and avoidance, and a predominant parasympathetic/hypothalamic activation. This divergence in coping has also been indicated in salmonid fish. Interestingly, many of the differences reported between sea-ranched and wild fish resembles characteristics that differentiate proactive and reactive copers. In the present thesis it is shown that individuals with divergent stress coping styles are identifiable in several brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations. Further, the results show that the distribution of individuals displaying these distinct stress coping strategies differs between populations. This strongly indicates that these traits are heritable and that the variation in selection regime in the native rivers influences these traits. In addition, the results show that populations with hatchery origin are biased towards having higher frequencies of trout displaying a proactive style than populations having wild origin. Also, even though the frequency of early sexual maturation, known as a viable alternative life history in salmonids, differs between populations of brown trout, no link between stress coping strategy and early sexual maturation were found. However, this thesis show that maternal contribution, in the form of egg size, is of major importance whether the progeny will sexually mature early and that it also might be of importance for stress coping strategy. Further, correlations of traits commonly associated with stress coping strategies and behavioural syndromes across context and over time is investigated. The results show that individuals with a strong sympathetic reactivity are more prone to change their behaviour than others.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2008. , p. 68
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 413
Keywords [en]
Zoophysiology, Stress-coping-strategies, Animal-personalities, Behavioral-syndromes, Brown trout, Salmo trutta, Catecholamines, Sexual maturation, Hatchery, Phenotype, Learning
Keywords [sv]
Zoofysiologi
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8591ISBN: 978-91-554-7139-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-8591DiVA, id: diva2:171686
Public defence
2008-04-18, Zootissalen, EBC, Zoologen (Hus 1), Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-03-28 Created: 2008-03-28 Last updated: 2009-04-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Divergent stress coping strategies in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Divergent stress coping strategies in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)
2005 (English)In: Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, Trends in comparative endocrinology and neurobiology, Vol. 1040, p. 239-245Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96939 (URN)
Available from: 2008-03-28 Created: 2008-03-28 Last updated: 2009-04-05Bibliographically approved
2. Frequency distribution of coping strategies in four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Frequency distribution of coping strategies in four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta)
Show others...
2008 (English)In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 546-556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a challenging situation some animals respond by active avoidance, aggression and an activation of the sympathetic nervous system whereas others respond by immobility, low levels of aggression and a predominant adrenocortical stress response. When consistent over time and across situations such inter-individual differences in behaviourul and physiological stress responses are referred to as stress coping strategies. In a previous study we reported the existence of two distinct stress coping strategies in a sea-ranched brown trout (Salmo trutta) population. Using the same method, we here show that four brown trout populations with different origin, but reared under identical conditions, differ in their endocrine stress response, behaviour during hypoxia and aggression. Further more, if individuals are classified as high- and low responsive based on post-stress blood plasma noradrenalin levels (indicator of sympathetic reactivity) the frequency distribution shows that populations with hatchery origin are biased towards having higher frequencies of high responsive individuals. However, the number of high responsive trout ranges from 14-48% in the different populations which shows that generally the frequency is biased towards lower levels of high responsive individuals. We discuss different frequency-dependent mechanisms that maintain multiple phenotypes in populations and speculate about differences in selection regime among the studied populations.

Keywords
Fish, Proactive, Reactive, Stress, Noradrenalin, Adrenalin, Cortisol, Hypoxia, Animal personality;, Behavioural syndrome
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96940 (URN)10.1016/j.yhbeh.2007.12.011 (DOI)000255100700006 ()18280474 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-03-28 Created: 2008-03-28 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Is precocious sexual maturation in brown trout (Salmo trutta) associated with a proactive coping style?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is precocious sexual maturation in brown trout (Salmo trutta) associated with a proactive coping style?
Show others...
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96941 (URN)
Available from: 2008-03-28 Created: 2008-03-28 Last updated: 2009-04-05Bibliographically approved
4. Intra individual variation in behavioural and physiological stress responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intra individual variation in behavioural and physiological stress responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta)
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-96942 (URN)
Available from: 2008-03-28 Created: 2008-03-28 Last updated: 2009-04-05Bibliographically approved

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