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The interaction of multiple environmental stressors affects adaptation to a novel habitat in the natterjack toad Bufo calamita
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-5553-2691
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
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2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 22, nr 11, s. 2267-2277Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The potential to adapt to novel environmental conditions is a key area of interest for evolutionary biology. However, the role of multiple selection pressures on adaptive responses has rarely been investigated in natural populations. In Sweden, the natterjack toad Bufo calamita inhabits two separate distribution areas, one in southernmost Sweden and one on the west coast. We characterized the larval habitat in terms of pond size and salinity in the two areas, and found that the breeding ponds of the western populations run higher desiccation risk and had higher salinity than the ponds used by the southern populations. In a common garden experiment manipulating salinity and temperature, we found that toads from the west coast populations were locally adapted to shorter pond duration as indicated by their higher development and growth rates. However, despite being subjected to higher salinity stress in nature, west coast toads had a poorer performance in saline treatments. We found that survival in the saline treatments in the west coast populations was positively affected by larger body mass and longer larval period. Furthermore, we found negative genetic correlations between body mass and growth rate and their non-adaptive plastic responses to salinity. These results implicate that the occurrence of multiple environmental stressors needs to be accounted for when assessing the adaptive potential of organisms and suggest that genetic correlations may play a role in constraining adaptation of natural populations.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2009. Vol. 22, nr 11, s. 2267-2277
Nyckelord [en]
Trade-offs, genetic correlations, evolutionary change, natural selection, life-history traits
Nationell ämneskategori
Biologiska vetenskaper
Forskningsämne
Populationsbiologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107340DOI: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01842.xISI: 000271049500013OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-107340DiVA, id: diva2:228825
Tillgänglig från: 2009-08-06 Skapad: 2009-08-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Genetic variation and local adaptation in peripheral populations of toads
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Genetic variation and local adaptation in peripheral populations of toads
2009 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Northern fringe populations generally have low amounts of genetic variation and inhabit habitats where specific adaptations are needed. On the Swedish west coast, the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) inhabits skerry islands. I have examined: I) adaptation to two environmental stressors in this habitat; II) the genetic population structure within the skerry habitat; III) the effects of neutral genetic variation, selection and genetic drift on trait divergence within the skerry habitat; and IV) the effects of genetic variation on fitness under three thermal conditions of varying stressfulness. V) I have also studied the impact of putative local adaptations on the Scandinavian green toad (Bufo viridis) conservation programme. The results suggest that the skerry natterjack toads are locally adapted to the desiccation risk in their habitat. However, despite inhabiting a more saline habitat, they had a lower salinity tolerance when compared to their conspecifics in the more general habitat. The lowered salinity tolerance is most likely explained by the presence of negative genetic correlations between salinity tolerance and desiccation avoidance and suggests that the occurrence of multiple environmental stressors may constrain adaptation. Within the skerry habitat, the toads exhibited a strong population structure with populations differing in their levels of genetic variation. Moreover, within the skerry habitat, the results suggest uniform selection pressures. However, correlations between trait values and neutral genetic variation suggest that inbreeding depression may affect trait values and thus potentially constrain adaptation. In the natterjack toad, fitness costs associated with lack of genetic variation were only present under benign conditions and not under more natural conditions. This suggests that environmental stress masks inbreeding depression in these traits under natural conditions. In the study regarding the Scandinavian green toads, I found that one population inhabiting a saline habitat had a higher salinity tolerance than other populations in less saline habitats. This suggests the presence of local adaptation, which should be acknowledged in the green toad conservation programme. Several of the northern fringe populations of toads fulfill the criteria of being Evolutionary Significant Units and their conservation thus should be prioritized.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. s. 65
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 662
Nationell ämneskategori
Ekologi
Forskningsämne
Populationsbiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107395 (URN)978-91-554-7580-2 (ISBN)
Disputation
2009-09-25, Friessalen, Norbyvägen 18A, Uppsala, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2009-09-04 Skapad: 2009-08-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-04-29Bibliografiskt granskad

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