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The effects of selection, drift and genetic variation on life-history trait divergence among insular populations of natterjack toad, Bufo calamita
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-5553-2691
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Populationsbiologi och naturvårdsbiologi.
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2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 19, nr 11, s. 2229-2240Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Although loss of genetic variation is frequently assumed to be associated with loss of adaptive potential, only few studies have examined adaptation in populations with little genetic variation. On the Swedish west coast, the northern fringe populations of the natterjack toad Bufo calamita inhabit an atypical habitat consisting of offshore rock islands. There are strong among-population differences in the amount of neutral genetic variation, making this system suitable for studies on mechanisms of trait divergence along a gradient of within-population genetic variation. In this study, we examined the mechanisms of population divergence using Q(ST)-F-ST comparisons and correlations between quantitative and neutral genetic variation. Our results suggest drift or weak stabilizing selection across the six populations included in this study, as indicated by low Q(ST)-F-ST values, lack of significant population x temperature interactions and lack of significant differences among the islands in breeding pond size. The six populations included in this study differed in both neutral and quantitative genetic variation. Also, the correlations between neutral and quantitative genetic variation tended to be positive, however, the relatively small number of populations prevents any strong conclusions based on these correlations. Contrary to the majority of Q(ST)-F-ST comparisons, our results suggest drift or weak stabilizing selection across the examined populations. Furthermore, the low heritability of fitness-related traits may limit evolutionary responses in some of the populations.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2010. Vol. 19, nr 11, s. 2229-2240
Nyckelord [en]
conservation biology, environmental stress, evolutionary change, genetic drift, life-history traits, natural selection
Nationell ämneskategori
Ekologi
Forskningsämne
Populationsbiologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107343DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04642.xISI: 000277975300005PubMedID: 20465584OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-107343DiVA, id: diva2:228828
Tillgänglig från: 2009-08-06 Skapad: 2009-08-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Genetic variation and local adaptation in peripheral populations of toads
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Genetic variation and local adaptation in peripheral populations of toads
2009 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Northern fringe populations generally have low amounts of genetic variation and inhabit habitats where specific adaptations are needed. On the Swedish west coast, the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) inhabits skerry islands. I have examined: I) adaptation to two environmental stressors in this habitat; II) the genetic population structure within the skerry habitat; III) the effects of neutral genetic variation, selection and genetic drift on trait divergence within the skerry habitat; and IV) the effects of genetic variation on fitness under three thermal conditions of varying stressfulness. V) I have also studied the impact of putative local adaptations on the Scandinavian green toad (Bufo viridis) conservation programme. The results suggest that the skerry natterjack toads are locally adapted to the desiccation risk in their habitat. However, despite inhabiting a more saline habitat, they had a lower salinity tolerance when compared to their conspecifics in the more general habitat. The lowered salinity tolerance is most likely explained by the presence of negative genetic correlations between salinity tolerance and desiccation avoidance and suggests that the occurrence of multiple environmental stressors may constrain adaptation. Within the skerry habitat, the toads exhibited a strong population structure with populations differing in their levels of genetic variation. Moreover, within the skerry habitat, the results suggest uniform selection pressures. However, correlations between trait values and neutral genetic variation suggest that inbreeding depression may affect trait values and thus potentially constrain adaptation. In the natterjack toad, fitness costs associated with lack of genetic variation were only present under benign conditions and not under more natural conditions. This suggests that environmental stress masks inbreeding depression in these traits under natural conditions. In the study regarding the Scandinavian green toads, I found that one population inhabiting a saline habitat had a higher salinity tolerance than other populations in less saline habitats. This suggests the presence of local adaptation, which should be acknowledged in the green toad conservation programme. Several of the northern fringe populations of toads fulfill the criteria of being Evolutionary Significant Units and their conservation thus should be prioritized.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. s. 65
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 662
Nationell ämneskategori
Ekologi
Forskningsämne
Populationsbiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-107395 (URN)978-91-554-7580-2 (ISBN)
Disputation
2009-09-25, Friessalen, Norbyvägen 18A, Uppsala, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2009-09-04 Skapad: 2009-08-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-04-29Bibliografiskt granskad

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