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Growth rate constrain morphological divergence when driven by competition
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Limnologi.
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Limnologi.
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Limnologi.
2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 115, nr 1, s. 15-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Resource competition has been hypothesized to be important in driving divergence by natural selection. The effect of competition on morphological divergence and plasticity has however rarely been investigated. Since low growth rates might constrain morphological modulation and individual growth rates usually are negatively related to the intensity of competition, there might be a connection between competition, growth rate and morphological divergence. We performed an aquarium experiment with young-of-the-year Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) to investigate how individual growth rate affected morphological plasticity induced by contrasting habitat treatments. Furthermore, in a field study of 10 lakes we also related the degree of morphological differentiation between habitats to the intraspecific competitior biomass. In the aquarium experiment we found that morphological plasticity was growth rate dependent in that morphological differentiation between the habitat treatments was confined to high individual growth rates. In the field study we found that morphological differentiation between habitats decreased with increasing intraspecific competitior biomass. Since plasticity is hypothesized to be important in divergence and intraspecific biomass could serve as a proxy for the level of competition, we suggest that our results indicate that morphological divergence might be constrained during periods of intense intraspecific competition due to low growth rates. A possible scenario is that at low growth rates all energy available is used for metabolic maintenance and no surplus energy is therefore available for morphological modulation.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2006. Vol. 115, nr 1, s. 15-22
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Limnologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-23508DOI: 10.1111/j.2006.0030-1299.14965.xISI: 000240998300002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-23508DiVA, id: diva2:51282
Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-17 Laget: 2008-11-17 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-07bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Interplay Between Environment and Genes on Morphological Variation in Perch – Implications for Resource Polymorphisms
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Interplay Between Environment and Genes on Morphological Variation in Perch – Implications for Resource Polymorphisms
2006 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Recent research has suggested that individual specialization within populations could be substantial and more common than previously acknowledged. Eurasian perch is one of many species of fish in lakes of postglacial origin that displays a morphological and dietary variation tightly coupled to the littoral and pelagic habitats of the lake. The occurrence of such resource polymorphisms might have important consequences for local adaptation and might also be an important initial step in speciation.

I have investigated the importance of a number of factors for the development of resource polymorphisms using perch as a study organism. I found a weak genetic basis for morphological differences, and the environmental influence on morphology was of such a magnitude that an induced morphology could be reversed. The results nevertheless suggested that genetic differentiation could be substantial at small spatial and temporal scales, even within habitats. Several environmental factors were shown to influence the morphological development, and the results also suggest that behavioral differences could mediate a morphological response. I also found evidence for that competition-driven divergence might only occur when divergence in resource use is favoured at the same time as growth rates are kept sufficiently high for character divergence to be effective. The results finally indicate that divergence in the gut length of individuals might co-vary with habitat and diet use in resource polymorphic populations. This might enhance habitat fidelity and possibly also facilitate the persistence of resource polymorphisms since individuals should experience a cost of switching diets due to a too specific digestive system.

Based on these findings I conclude that small scaled genetic differentiation might be more common than currently acknowledged, that more multi-factorial studies are needed if we are to fully understand the mechanisms behind trait diversity, and that competition not always favors divergence.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006. s. 55
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 235
Emneord
Ecology, Perch, Resource polymorphism, Genetic differentiation, Phenotypic plasticity, Morphology, Competition, Character divergence, Behavior, Growth rate, Resource level, Gut lenght, Ekologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-7212 (URN)91-554-6696-6 (ISBN)
Disputas
2006-11-28, Lindahlssalen, Kärnhuset, EBC, Norbyvägen 18, 752 36, Uppsala, 10:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2006-11-07 Laget: 2006-11-07 Sist oppdatert: 2011-04-20bibliografisk kontrollert

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