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Magnetic resonance imaging cooling–reheating protocol indicates decreased fat fraction via lipid consumption in suspected brown adipose tissue
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
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2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4, article id e0126705Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cooling-reheating protocol could be used to detect changes in lipid content and perfusion in the main human brown adipose tissue (BAT) depot after a three-hour long mild cold exposure.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine volunteers were investigated with chemical-shift-encoded water-fat MRI at baseline, after a three-hour long cold exposure and after subsequent short reheating. Changes in fat fraction (FF) and R2*, related to ambient temperature, were quantified within cervical-supraclavicular adipose tissue (considered as suspected BAT, denoted sBAT) after semi-automatic segmentation. In addition, FF and R2* were quantified fully automatically in subcutaneous adipose tissue (not considered as suspected BAT, denoted SAT) for comparison. By assuming different time scales for the regulation of lipid turnover and perfusion in BAT, the changes were determined as resulting from either altered absolute fat content (lipid-related) or altered absolute water content (perfusion-related).

RESULTS: sBAT-FF decreased after cold exposure (mean change in percentage points = -1.94 pp, P = 0.021) whereas no change was observed in SAT-FF (mean = 0.23 pp, P = 0.314). sBAT-R2* tended to increase (mean = 0.65 s-1, P = 0.051) and SAT-R2* increased (mean = 0.40 s-1, P = 0.038) after cold exposure. sBAT-FF remained decreased after reheating (mean = -1.92 pp, P = 0.008, compared to baseline) whereas SAT-FF decreased (mean = -0.79 pp, P = 0.008, compared to after cold exposure).

CONCLUSIONS: The sustained low sBAT-FF after reheating suggests lipid consumption, rather than altered perfusion, as the main cause to the decreased sBAT-FF. The results obtained demonstrate the use of the cooling-reheating protocol for detecting changes in the cervical-supraclavicular fat depot, being the main human brown adipose tissue depot, in terms of lipid content and perfusion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 10, no 4, article id e0126705
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Research subject
Computerized Image Processing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-254074DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126705ISI: 000353713100132PubMedID: 25928226OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-254074DiVA, id: diva2:817004
Available from: 2015-04-30 Created: 2015-06-04 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Human Brown Adipose Tissue: Methodological Development and Application
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Human Brown Adipose Tissue: Methodological Development and Application
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ with the main human depot located in the cervical-supraclavicular (sBAT) region. BAT is proposed as a potential therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes. This thesis aims to contribute to the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based methods and to the application of these in studies of human BAT. Water-fat MRI enables separation of water and fat, the dominant contributors to the MR signal, and the quantification of fat fraction (FF) and effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*). FF and R2* are often used in studies of human BAT, e.g. for characterizing the tissue and distinguishing it from white adipose tissue. A Cooling-reheating protocol was introduced for studying changes in sBAT, related to lipid content and perfusion. sBAT FF decreased after cold exposure. The sustained low FF after reheating suggested lipid consumption as the primary cause. This conclusion was based on the assumption of a normalized perfusion after reheating. An automated method for segmentation of sBAT was developed. The method compared well with a semi-automated reference method with respect to segmentation overlap and estimated mean sBAT FF and R2*. A modified version of the automated method was applied to a large-scale study where an association between sBAT FF and glucose tolerance indicated a role for BAT in glucose metabolism, potentially linked to the risk of developing diabetes.  A Cooling-reheating protocol was evaluated with positron emission tomography measurements of perfusion and cold-stimulated BAT activity. Inverse correlations between sBAT FF and BAT activity suggested sBAT FF to predict cold-induced BAT activity. After reheating, the cold-induced increase in perfusion normalized and the cold-induced decrease in FF partially normalized. This suggested potential decreases in FF after reheating to mainly be due to lipid consumption and decreases in FF after cold exposure to possibly be influenced by perfusion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 83
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1572
Keywords
Brown adipose tissue, Magnetic resonance imaging, Positron emission tomography, Image segmentation, Glucose metabolism
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381766 (URN)978-91-513-0651-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-07, Rosénsalen, Entrance 95/96, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
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Available from: 2019-05-17 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2019-06-18

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Lundström, ElinStrand, RobinJohansson, LarsBergsten, PeterAhlström, HåkanKullberg, Joel

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