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Surgical treatment reduces blood pressure in children with unilateral congenital hydronephrosis
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-9578-1783
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-4590-4957
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa. (Barnkirurgi/Christofferson)
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
Vise andre og tillknytning
2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Pediatric Urology, ISSN 1477-5131, E-ISSN 1873-4898, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 91.e1-91.e6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective Renal disorders can cause hypertension, but less is known about the influence of hydronephrosis on blood pressure. Hydronephrosis due to pelvo-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) is a fairly common condition (incidence in newborns of 0.5-1%). Although hypertensive effects of hydronephrosis have been suggested, this has not been substantiated by prospective studies in humans [1-3]. Experimental studies with PUJO have shown that animals with induced hydronephrosis develop salt-sensitive hypertension, which strongly correlate to the degree of obstruction [4-7]. Moreover, relief of the obstruction normalized blood pressure [8]. In this first prospective study our aim was to study the blood pressure pattern in pediatric patients with hydronephrosis before and after surgical correction of the ureteral obstruction. Specifically, we investigated if preoperative blood pressure is reduced after surgery and if split renal function and renographic excretion curves provide any prognostic information. Patients and methods Twelve patients with unilateral congenital hydronephrosis were included in this prospective study. Ambulatory blood pressure (24 h) was measured preoperatively and six months after surgery. Preoperative evaluations of bilateral renal function by Tc99m-MAG3 scintigraphy, and renography curves, classified according to O'Reilly, were also performed. Results As shown in the summary figure, postoperative systolic (103 +/- 2 mmHg) and diastolic (62 +/- 2 mmHg) blood pressure were significantly lower than those obtained preoperatively (110 +/- 4 and 69 +/- 2 mmHg, respectively), whereas no changes in circadian variation or pulse pressure were observed. Renal functional share of the hydronephrotic kidney ranged from 11 to 55%. There was no correlation between the degree of renal function impairment and the preoperative excretory pattern, or between the preoperative excretory pattern and the blood pressure reduction postoperatively. However, preoperative MAG3 function of the affected kidney correlated with the magnitude of blood pressure change after surgery. Discussion Correction of the obstruction lowered blood pressure, and the reduction in blood pressure appeared to correlate with the degree of renal functional impairment, but not with the excretory pattern. Thus, in the setting of hypertension, it appears that the functional share of the hydronephrotic kidney should be considered an indicator of the need for surgery, whereas the renography curve is less reliable. The strength of the present study is the prospective nature and that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was used. Future longitudinal prolonged follow-up studies are warranted to confirm the present findings, and to understand if a real nephrogenic hypertension with potential necessity of treatment will develop. Conclusion This novel prospective study in patients with congenital hydronephrosis demonstrates a reduction in blood pressure following relief of the obstruction. Based on the present results, we propose that the blood pressure level should also be taken into account when deciding whether to correct hydronephrosis surgically or not.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2015. Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 91.e1-91.e6
Emneord [en]
Hydronephrosis, Hypertension, Pelvo-ureteric junction obstruction, Pyeloplasty, Renal function
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-257044DOI: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2015.01.008ISI: 000355333400035OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-257044DiVA, id: diva2:828094
Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-06-29 Laget: 2015-06-29 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-11
Inngår i avhandling
1. High Blood Pressure in Children with Hydronephrosis
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>High Blood Pressure in Children with Hydronephrosis
2018 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The most common cause of secondary hypertension is intrinsic renal disease, but little is known about the influence of hydronephrosis on blood pressure. In this thesis, the risk of development of hypertension in children with hydronephrosis was studied.

Experimental and clinical studies were combined in order to investigate the risk of developing elevated blood pressure following conservative treatment of hydronephrosis, and to further explore underlying mechanisms. We started with a clinical study in children (study I), which in agreement with previous experimental studies, showed that blood pressure was lowered by surgical management of hydronephrosis. In parallel, an experimental study was conducted (study II) to investigate the involvement of renal sympathetic nerve activity in development of hypertension following induction of hydronephrosis caused by pelvo-ureteric junction obstruction. Renal denervation of the obstructed kidney attenuated hypertension and restored the renal excretion pattern, effects that were associated with reduced activity of both renal NADPH oxidase derived oxidative stress and components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Based on the findings in studies I and II, we continued our studies in children with hydronephrosis, and including two control groups as comparisons with the hydronephrotic group (study III). In the same study, we further investigated potential mechanism(s) of hypertension by analyzing markers of oxidative stress and nitric oxide homeostasis in both urine and blood samples. We demonstrated increased arterial pressure and oxidative stress in children with hydronephrosis compared with healthy controls, which was restored to normal levels by surgical correction of the obstruction. Finally, in a retrospective cohort study, blood pressure of adult patients undergoing surgical management of hydronephrosis due to pelvo-ureteric junction obstruction was assessed (study IV). Similar to that demonstrated in the pediatric hydronephrotic population, blood pressure was significantly reduced by relief of the obstruction. In addition, blood pressure was increased again if the hydronephrosis recurred, and was reduced again following re-operation.

It is concluded that conservative management of hydronephrosis in children is associated with a risk for development of high blood pressure, which can be reduced or even normalized by relief of the obstruction. The mechanism(s), at least in part, is coupled to increased oxidative stress.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. s. 71
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1417
Emneord
Blood pressure, hydronephrosis, hypertension, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, pelvo-ureteric junction obstruction.
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Barnkirurgi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-338678 (URN)978-91-513-0206-5 (ISBN)
Disputas
2018-03-01, Rosénsalen, Akademiska barnsjukhuset ingång 95-96, Uppsala, 13:15 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-02-07 Laget: 2018-01-11 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-11

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