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Gambling frequency and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to problem gambling among Swedish adolescents: A population-based study
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8853-2508
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1433-0329
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2017 (English)In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To investigate the associations between gambling frequency, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and problem gambling among adolescent boys and girls. One hypothesis was that adolescents with increased ADHD symptoms have a higher frequency of gambling compared to adolescents with fewer ADHD symptoms.

Method: A population-based sample of adolescents (aged 15–18 years) completed a questionnaire on demographics, gambling habits, ADHD symptoms, and problematic gambling; 1412 adolescents (from 4440 sampled) with gambling experience were included in the final sample.

Results: A zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis revealed that increased ADHD symptoms, higher gambling frequency, and higher age were associated with lower odds for being non-susceptible to gambling problems. Moreover, gambling frequency interacted with ADHD symptoms in predicting probability of being non-susceptible to gambling problems. However, when analysing those already susceptible to problem gambling, ADHD symptoms did not modify the effect of gambling frequency on the expected magnitude of gambling problems. In susceptible individuals, problem gambling increased with both increased ADHD symptoms and increased gambling frequency, but the level of problems due to gambling frequency did not change depending on the ADHD symptom level. There was an interaction effect between sex and gambling frequency in relation to gambling problems.

Conclusions: Adolescents with ADHD symptoms seem to be more sensitive to gambling, in terms of being susceptible to developing gambling problems. However, once susceptible, adolescents with ADHD symptoms are affected by gambling frequency similarly to other susceptible participants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 22, no 2, p. 119-126
Keywords [en]
Adolescent, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, gambling, problem gambling, Problem Gambling Severity Index
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Family Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261154DOI: 10.1080/03009734.2017.1294636ISI: 000401756500008PubMedID: 28436719OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-261154DiVA, id: diva2:849744
Available from: 2015-08-31 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Adolescent Gaming and Gambling in Relation to Negative Social Consequences and Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adolescent Gaming and Gambling in Relation to Negative Social Consequences and Health
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aims of the thesis were to study relationships between the effects of online gaming and gambling and negative social consequences and ill health among adolescents and to determine whether gaming and gambling activities occur together.

The papers in this thesis used epidemiological methods to obtain self-report information from Swedish adolescents aged 13–18 years. Time spent in online gaming was associated with negative social consequences, and this relationship was explained by online gaming motives. Gaming for fun and social motives was associated with a reduced risk of negative social consequences, whereas gaming to escape problems, gain status, or meet demands from others was associated with an increased risk.

Increased online gaming time on weekdays increased the probability of having depressive, musculoskeletal, or psychosomatic symptoms, and was related to online gaming motives. The probability of ill health was low in those who reported gaming for fun or social motives. Adolescents with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were more sensitive to gambling frequency and to developing a gambling problem. However, among those identified as susceptible, adolescents with ADHD were equally affected compared with other susceptible participants in terms of their gambling frequency.

Boys had a higher probability than girls of participating in online gambling in association with online gaming. Having at least one parent born outside Scandinavia was associated with a higher probability of online gambling, especially among girls. The effect of alcohol use as a factor contributing to online gambling was greater among boys than among girls.

The results of this thesis contribute new knowledge about sex differences in online gaming and gambling behaviours and add to the limited research on online gaming and online gambling behaviours among adolescent girls. Gaming motives may be helpful for identifying online gamers needing support to reduce their unhealthy gaming behaviour. Information about factors related to gaming and gambling problems may be of interest to clinicians in psychiatry, psychology and social work, as well as to policymakers, parents and teachers involved in adolescent health and development. Effect preventive strategies should consider the sex differences in gaming and gambling behaviour in adolescents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. p. 80
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1131
Keywords
Adolescents, Depression, Gambling, Gaming, Health, Musculoskeletal symptoms, Negative social consequences, Psychosomatic Symptoms.
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Family Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261156 (URN)978-91-554-9316-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-10-16, Samlingssalen Ingång 29, Västmanlands sjukhus, Västerås, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-09-25 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2015-10-01

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Hellström, CharlottaWagner, PhilippeNillson, Kent W.Leppert, JerzyAslund, Cecilia

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