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Combination effects of pyrethroids and neonicotinoids on development and survival of Chironomus riparius
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
2015 (English)In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 122, p. 426-431Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

Standard ecotoxicological risk assessments are conducted on individual substances, however monitoring of streams in agricultural areas has shown that pesticides are rarely present alone. In fact, brief but intense pulse events such as storm water runoff and spray drift during application subject freshwater environments to complex mixtures of pesticides at high concentrations. This study investigates the potential risks to non-target aquatic organisms exposed to a brief but intense mixture of the neonicotinoid pesticides imidacloprid and thiacloprid and the pyrethroid pesticides deltamethrin and esfenvalerate, compared to single substance exposure. All four of these pesticides have been detected in surface waters at concentrations higher than benchmark values and both classes of pesticides are known to exert adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms under single substance exposure scenarios. First instar midge larvae of the non-target aquatic organism, Chironomus riparius, were exposed to combinations of these four pesticides at 50% of their LC50 (96 h) values in a 1 h pulse. They were then reared to adulthood in uncontaminated conditions and assessed for survival, development time and fecundity. Our results show that the risk of disruption to survival and development of non-target aquatic organisms under this scenario is not negligible on account of the significant increases in mortality of C. riparius found in the majority of the pesticide exposures and the delays in development after pyrethroid exposure. While none of the deleterious effects appear to be amplified by combination of the pesticides, there is some evidence for antagonism. No effects on fecundity by any of the pesticide treatments were observed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 122, p. 426-431
Keywords [en]
Brief exposure, Aquatic invertebrate, Mixture toxicity, Pesticide, Midge
National Category
Ecology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-268704DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.09.008ISI: 000364263000053PubMedID: 26379201OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-268704DiVA, id: diva2:880096
Available from: 2015-12-09 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2018-06-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sub-lethal Effects of Anthropogenic Contaminants on Aquatic Invertebrates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sub-lethal Effects of Anthropogenic Contaminants on Aquatic Invertebrates
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Anthropogenic contaminants are considered to play a substantial role in the decline of freshwater invertebrate diversity. Sub-lethal effects of many of these contaminants on behaviour and life-history traits of aquatic invertebrates may contribute to their decline. As contaminants are rarely present in the environment alone, the effects of mixture exposures are highly relevant in assessing the risk these substances pose to the biota. This thesis focuses on sub-lethal effects of exposure to aquatic pollutants, separately and in combination, on fresh-water invertebrates. To investigate the single and combined effects of pesticides, larvae of the midge, Chironomus riparius were exposed to a 1 hour pulse of two neonicotinoids and two pyrethroids.  This short exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of pesticides decreased the survival and delayed development in C. riparius.  The combination of neonicotinoids and pyrethroids did not produce synergistic effects; however, there was some indication of antagonism. Additionally, larvae of the damselfly, Coenagrion puella, were exposed for 14 hours to two environmentally relevant concentrations of pyrethroid pesticides, alone and in combination. Exposure to the pyrethroid, deltamethrin, reduced the larvae’s predatory ability. Combined exposure to both deltamethrin and esfenvalerate inhibited the Glutathione S-transferase detoxification pathway and may have additive toxic effects on the larvae’s predatory ability. Microplastics are increasingly gaining attention as an aquatic pollutant of major concern with respect to the toxicity of the microplastics themselves as well as their capacity to adsorb persistent organic pollutants like pesticides. To investigate the effects of microplastics and a pyrethroid, alone and in combination, C. riparius larvae were raised in sediment spiked with two sizes of polystyrene-based latex microbeads and an environmentally relevant concentration of esfenvalerate under normal and food-restricted conditions. Exposure to both sizes of microplastics and esfenvalerate lead to equally decreased emergence under food-restricted conditions. Additionally, exposure to esfenvalerate led to decreases in survival when food was scarce that did not occur when microplastics were co-present. Antishistamines are also an emerging aquatic contaminant of concern with very little known about their biological effects on aquatic wildlife. Antihistamines could potentially interfere with the histaminergic pathways and thus affect thermal tolerance and temperature preference in aquatic invertebrates. The freshwater snail, Planorbarius corneus, was exposed for 24 hours to the antihistamine, diphenhydramine. This exposure increased thermal tolerance and righting time, but did not affect temperature preference. The results of the investigation suggest that anthropogenic contaminates alone and/or in combination have sub-lethal effects on life history, behavior and physiology of aquatic invertebrates. Such sub-lethal effects have the potential to affect populations and community structure in the aquatic and terrestrial environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 70
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1692
Keywords
ecotoxicology, sub-lethal, behavior, biomarkers, thermal tolerance, pesticides, pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, pharmaceuticals, antihistamines, microplastics, mixtures, freshwater, invertebrates, chironomids, damselflies, snails
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Animal Conservation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-355236 (URN)978-91-513-0382-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-09-07, Zootissalen, Evolutionsbiologiskt centrum, Norbyvägen 14-18, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2018-08-15 Created: 2018-06-27 Last updated: 2018-08-27

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Kunce, WarrenÖrberg, JanJohansson, Frank

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