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Emergent Structural Mechanisms for High-Density Collective Motion Inspired by Human Crowds
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik och statistik.
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik och statistik.
Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University.
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 117, nr 22, artikkel-id 228301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Collective motion of large human crowds often depends on their density. In extreme cases like heavy metal concerts and black Friday sales events, motion is dominated by physical interactions instead of conventional social norms. Here, we study an active matter model inspired by situations when large groups of people gather at a point of common interest. Our analysis takes an approach developed for jammed granular media and identifies Goldstone modes, soft spots, and stochastic resonance as structurally driven mechanisms for potentially dangerous emergent collective motion.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2016. Vol. 117, nr 22, artikkel-id 228301
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303941DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.228301ISI: 000388630000032OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-303941DiVA, id: diva2:974651
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-27 Laget: 2016-09-27 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-21bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Modelling collective movement and transport network formation in living systems
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Modelling collective movement and transport network formation in living systems
2016 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The emergence of collective patterns from repeated local interactions between individuals is a common feature to most living systems, spanning a variety of scales from cells to animals and humans. Subjects of this thesis are two aspects of emergent complexity in living systems: collective movement and transport network formation. For collective movement, this thesis studies the role of movement-mediated information transfer in fish decision-making. The second project on collective movement takes inspiration from granular media and soft mode analysis and develops a new approach to describe the emergence of collective phenomena from physical interactions in extremely dense crowds. As regards transport networks, this thesis proposes a model of network growth to extract simple, biologically plausible rules that reproduce topological properties of empirical ant trail networks.  In the second project on transport networks, this thesis starts from the simple rule of “connecting each new node to the closest one”, that describes ants building behavior, to study how balancing local building costs and global maintenance costs influences the growth and topological properties of transport networks. These projects are addressed through a modeling approach and with the aim of identifying minimal sets of basic mechanisms that are most likely responsible of large-scale complex patterns. Mathematical models are always based on empirical observations and are, when possible, compared to experimental data.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Uppsala: Department of Mathematics, 2016. s. 56
Serie
Uppsala Dissertations in Mathematics, ISSN 1401-2049 ; 96
Emneord
animal collective behaviour, transport networks, crowd dynamics, complex systems, ants, fish
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Tillämpad matematik och statistik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303943 (URN)978-91-506-2599-8 (ISBN)
Disputas
2016-11-25, Häggsalen, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-11-03 Laget: 2016-09-27 Sist oppdatert: 2016-11-15

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