The back-step method: method for obtaining unbiased population parameter estimates for ordered categorical data
2004 (English)In: AAPS Journal, ISSN 1550-7416, Vol. 6, no 3, 13-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
A significant bias in parameters, estimated with the proportional odds model using the software NONMEM, has been reported. Typically, this bias occurs with ordered categorical data, when most of the observations are found at one extreme of the possible outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess, through simulations, the performance of the Back-Step Method (BSM), a novel approach for obtaining unbiased estimates when the standard approach provides biased estimates. BSM is an iterative method involving sequential simulation-estimation steps. BSM was compared with the standard approach in the analysis of a 4-category ordered variable using the Laplacian method in NONMEM. The bias in parameter estimates and the accuracy of model predictions were determined for the 2 methods on 3 conditions: (1) a nonskewed distribution of the response with low interindividual variability (IIV), (2) a skewed distribution with low IIV, and (3) a skewed distribution with high IIV. An increase in bias with increasing skewness and IIV was shown in parameters estimated using the standard approach in NONMEM. BSM performed without appreciable bias in the estimates under the 3 conditions, and the model predictions were in good agreement with the original data. Each BSM estimation represents a random sample of the population; hence, repeating the BSM estimation reduces the imprecision of the parameter estimates. The BSM is an accurate estimation method when the standard modeling approach in NONMEM gives biased estimates.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 6, no 3, 13-22 p.
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-72181DOI: 10.1208/aapsj060319PubMedID: 15760104OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-72181DiVA: diva2:100092