Intravenously administered digoxin in patients with acute atrial fibrillation: a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis based on the Digitalis in Acute Atrial Fibrillation trial
2003 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 58, no 11, 747-755 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation is commonly treated with intravenously administered digoxin. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma concentration of digoxin and heart rate. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Plasma concentrations of digoxin were analysed in 105 patients allocated to digoxin therapy in the Digitalis in Acute Atrial Fibrillation (DAAF) trial. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model for the relationship among digoxin dose, plasma concentration and heart rate in patients remaining in atrial fibrillation was constructed using non-linear, mixed-effect modelling. One hundred and twenty-two placebo-treated patients were included as a control group. In 56 patients, one late sample at 16 h after the first dose of digoxin was obtained while in 49 patients an early sample at 0.25-0.5 h and a late sample 16 h after the first dose were obtained. Heart rate was measured at 0, 2, 6, 12 and 16 h after inclusion, with data from 98, 89, 67, 56 and 53 patients available at each time point, respectively. RESULTS: A two-compartment model best described the time course of digoxin concentrations in plasma. Digoxin and creatinine clearance correlated strongly and mean plasma concentration of digoxin at 16 h was within recommended levels (1.6+/-1.0 nM). The decrease in heart rate in placebo-treated patients was, on average, 0.5 beats/min (bpm) per hour. In patients on digoxin, a linear relationship between the estimated digoxin concentration at the effect site and the drop-in heart rate was found. The half-life for the digoxin distribution to the effect compartment was approximately 3.8 h. The degree of reduction was related to the initial heart rate and patients with higher heart rate had a more pronounced decrease. The model predicted that a digoxin concentration of 1 nM at the effect site reduces heart rate by 9.4%. CONCLUSION: A PK/PD model for the relationship between the plasma concentration of digoxin, the estimated concentration at the effect site and the reduction in heart rate during atrial fibrillation could be defined using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Our data indicate that a more aggressive dosing regimen of digoxin may be more effective in terms of heart rate reduction.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 58, no 11, 747-755 p.
atrial fibrillation, digoxin, population PK/PD modelling
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-72942DOI: 10.1007/s00228-002-0553-3PubMedID: 12634981OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-72942DiVA: diva2:100853