Transforming growth factor-beta induces nuclear import of Smad3 in an importin-beta1 and Ran-dependent manner
2001 (English)In: Molecular Biology of the Cell, ISSN 1059-1524, E-ISSN 1939-4586, Vol. 12, no 4, 1079-1091 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Smad proteins are cytoplasmic signaling effectors of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family cytokines and regulate gene transcription in the nucleus. Receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads) become phosphorylated by the TGF-beta type I receptor. Rapid and precise transport of R-Smads to the nucleus is of crucial importance for signal transduction. By focusing on the R-Smad Smad3 we demonstrate that 1) only activated Smad3 efficiently enters the nucleus of permeabilized cells in an energy- and cytosol-dependent manner. 2) Smad3, via its N-terminal domain, interacts specifically with importin-beta1 and only after activation by receptor. In contrast, the unique insert of exon3 in the N-terminal domain of Smad2 prevents its association with importin-beta1. 3) Nuclear import of Smad3 in vivo requires the action of the Ran GTPase, which mediates release of Smad3 from the complex with importin-beta1. 4) Importin-beta1, Ran, and p10/NTF2 are sufficient to mediate import of activated Smad3. The data describe a pathway whereby Smad3 phosphorylation by the TGF-beta receptor leads to enhanced interaction with importin-beta1 and Ran-dependent import and release into the nucleus. The import mechanism of Smad3 shows distinct features from that of the related Smad2 and the structural basis for this difference maps to the divergent sequences of their N-terminal domains.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2001. Vol. 12, no 4, 1079-1091 p.
Active Transport; Cell Nucleus, Animals, Binding Sites, Carrier Proteins/metabolism, Cell Line, Cell Line; Transformed, Cell Nucleus/*metabolism, DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism, Humans, Karyopherins, Mice, Nuclear Proteins/*metabolism, Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins, Research Support; Non-U.S. Gov't, Signal Transduction, Trans-Activators/*metabolism, Transforming Growth Factor beta/*metabolism, Tumor Cells; Cultured, ran GTP-Binding Protein/*metabolism
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-73352DOI: 10.1091/mbc.12.4.1079PubMedID: 11294908OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-73352DiVA: diva2:101262